Across the Arid Diagonal: deglaciation of the western Andean Cordillera in southwest Bolivia and northern Chile

D. Ward, R. Thornton, J. Cesta

Abstract


Here we review published cosmogenic records of glaciation and deglaciation from the western cordillera of the arid subtropical Andes of northern Chile and southwest Bolivia. Specifically, we examine seven published studies describing exposure ages from moraines and glaciated bedrock spanning the glaciological Arid Diagonal, the region of the dry Andes where there is no clear evidence for glaciation over at least the last global glaciation. We also present new cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages from two previously undated sets of moraines in the deglaciated region near 22ºS. Taken together, these records indicate that the most extensive regional glaciation occurred ca. 35-45 ka, followed by slow, punctuated retreat through the global last glacial maximum, and rapid retreat after ~15-17 ka. In the vicinity of the large Altiplanic lakes that existed during the late glacial stage, the 15-17 ka moraines overrode the earlier moraines, whereas elsewhere regionally, on both sides of the Arid Diagonal, late glacial wet periods are represented only by less-prominent moraines in more retracted positions.

Keywords


deglaciation; Andes; cosmogenic dating; moraines; paleoclimate

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ammann, C., Jenny, B., Kammer, K., Messerli, B. 2001. Late Quaternary glacier response to humidity changes in the arid Andes of Chile (18–29ºS). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 172 (3), 313-326. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00306-6.

Baker, P.A., Fritz, S.C.,2015. Nature and causes of Quaternary climate variation of tropical South America. Quaternary Science Reviews 124, 31-47. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.06.011.

Balco, G., Stone, J.O., Lifton, N.A., Dunai, T.J. 2008. A complete and easily accessible means of calculating surface exposure ages or erosion rates from 10Be and 26Al measurements. Quaternary Geochronology 3 (3), 174-195. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2007.12.001.

Blard, P.H., Lavé, J., Farley, K.A., Fornari, M., Jiménez, N., Ramirez, V., 2009. Late local glacial maximum in the Central Altiplano triggered by cold and locally-wet conditions during the paleolake Tauca episode (17–15ka, Heinrich 1). Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (27), pp. 3414-3427.

Blard, P.H., Braucher, R., Lavé, J., Bourlès, D. 2013a. Cosmogenic 10Be production rate calibrated against 3He in the high Tropical Andes (3800–4900 m, 20–22ºS). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 382, 140-149. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.09.010.

Blard, P.H., Lavé, J., Sylvestre, F., Placzek, C.J., Claude, C., Galy, V., Condom, T., Tibari, B. 2013b. Cosmogenic 3He production rate in the high tropical Andes (3800 m, 20ºS): implications for the local last glacial maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 377, 260-275. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.07.006.

Blard, P.H., Lave, J., Farley, K.A., Ramirez, V., Jimenez, N., Martin, L.C., Charreau, J., Tibari, B., Fornari, M. 2014. Progressive glacial retreat in the Southern Altiplano (Uturuncu volcano, 22°S) between 65 and 14ka constrained by cosmogenic 3He dating. Quaternary Research 82 (1), 209-221. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2014.02.002.

Blodgett, T.A., Isacks, B.L., Lenters, J.D. 1997. Constraints on the origin of paleolake expansions in the central Andes. Earth Interactions, 1(1), pp.1-28.

Bobst, A.L., Lowenstein, T.K., Jordan, T.E., Godfrey, L.V., Ku, T.L., Luo, S., 2001. A 106 ka paleoclimate record from drill core of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 173 (1), 21-42. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00308.

Bromley, G.R., Schaefer, J.M., Hall, B.L., Rademaker, K.M., Putnam, A.E., Todd, C.E., Hegland, M., Winckler, G., Jackson, M.S., Strand, P.D. 2016. A cosmogenic 10Be chronology for the local last glacial maximum and termination in the Cordillera Oriental, southern Peruvian Andes: Implications for the tropical role in global climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 148, 54-67. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.07.010.

Casassa, G., Haeberli, W., Jones, G., Kaser, G., Ribstein, P., Rivera, A., Schneider, C. 2007. Current status of Andean glaciers. Global and Planetary Change 59 (1), 1-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.11.013.

Cesta, J.M., Ward, D.J. 2016. Timing and nature of alluvial fan development along the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile. Geomorphology, 273, 412-427. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.09.003.

Cook, K.H., Vizy, E.K. 2006. South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: delayed onset of the South American monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 111 (D2). http://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD005980.

De Martonne, E. 1934. The Andes of the North-West Argentine. The Geographical Journal, 84 (1), 1-14.

Denton, G.H., Anderson, R.F., Toggweiler, J.R., Edwards, R.L., Schaefer, J.M., Putnam, A.E. 2010. The last glacial termination. Science 328 (5986), 1652-1656. doi:10.1126/science.1184119.

Gayo, E.M., Latorre, C., Jordan, T.E., Nester, P.L., Estay, S.A., Ojeda, K.F., Santoro, C.M. 2012. Late Quaternary hydrological and ecological changes in the hyperarid core of the northern Atacama Desert (~21ºS). Earth-Science Reviews 113 (3), 120-140. http://doi.org/10.1016/.j.earscirev.2012.04.003.

Garreaud, R., 2000. Intraseasonal variability of moisture and rainfall over the South American Altiplano. Monthly Weather Review 128 (9), 3337-3346. .

Garreaud, R., Vuille, M., Clement, A.C. 2003. The climate of the Altiplano: observed current conditions and mechanisms of past changes. Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology 194 (1), 5-22. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00269-4.

Garreaud, R., Aceituno, P. 2001. Interannual rainfall variability over the South American Altiplano. Journal of Climate 14 (12), 2779-2789. http://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2779:IRVOTS>2.0.CO;2.

Ginot, P., Kull, C., Schotterer, U., Schwikowski, M., Gäggeler, H.W. 2006. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes). Climate of the Past 2 (1), 21-30. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp_2-21-2006.

Gosse, J.C., Phillips, F.M. 2001. Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides: theory and application. Quaternary Science Reviews 20 (14), 1475-1560. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00171-2.

Grenon, M., 2007. Nature Around the ALMA Site–Part 1. The Messenger, 127. European Southern Observatory (http://www.eso.org).

Grosjean, M., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Van der Knaap, W.O., Geyh, M.A., Ammann, B., Tanner, W., Messerli, B., Núñez, L.A., Valero-Garcés, B.L., Veit, H., 2001. A 22,000 14C year BP sediment and pollen record of climate change from Laguna Miscanti (23ºS), northern Chile. Global and Planetary Change 28 (1), 35-51. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00063-1.

Hartley, A. 2003. Andean uplift and climate change. Journal of the Geological Society, 160 (1), pp. 7-10. http://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764902-083.

Houston, J. 2006. The great Atacama flood of 2001 and its implications for Andean hydrology. Hydrological Processes, 20 (3), 591-610. http://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5926.

Jenny, B., Kammer, K., Ammann, C. 1996. Climate change in den trockenen Anden. Verlag des Geographischen Institutes der Universität Bern.

Jomelli, V., Favier, V., Vuille, M., Braucher, R., Martin, L., Blard, P.H., Colose, C., Brunstein, D., He, F., Khodri, M., Bourlès, D.L. 2014. A major advance of tropical Andean glaciers during the Antarctic cold reversal. Nature 513, 224-228. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature13546.

Kanner, L.C., Burns, S.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L. 2012. High-latitude forcing of the South American summer monsoon during the last glacial. Science 335 (6068), 570-573. Doi:10.1126/science.1213397.

Kelly, M.A., Lowell, T.V., Applegate, P.J., Phillips, F.M., Schaefer, J.M., Smith, C.A., Kim, H., Leonard, K.C., Hudson, A.M. 2015. A locally calibrated, late glacial 10Be production rate from a low-latitude, high-altitude site in the Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Geochronology 26, 70-85. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2013.10.007.

Kull, C. and Grosjean, M. 1998. Albedo changes, Milankovitch forcing, and late Quaternary climate changes in the central Andes. Climate Dynamics 14 (12), 871-881. http://doi.org/10.1007/s003820050261.

Kull, C., Grosjean, M., Veit, H. 2002. Modeling modern and Late Pleistocene glacio-climatological conditions in the north Chilean Andes (29–30). Climatic Change 52 (3), 359-381. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013746917257.

Kull, C., Grosjean, M. 2000. Late Pleistocene climate conditions in the north Chilean Andes drawn from a climate–glacier model. Journal of Glaciology 46 (155), 622-632. http://doi.org/10.3189/172756500781832611.

Lenters, J.D., Cook, K.H. 1997. On the origin of the Bolivian high and related circulation features of the South American climate. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 54 (5), 656-678.

Levy, J.S., Marchant, D.R. and Head, J.W. 2006. Distribution and origin of patterned ground on Mullins Valley debris-covered glacier, Antarctica: the roles of ice flow and sublimation. Antarctic Science 18 (3), 385-397. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102006000435.

Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T.J. 2014. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 386, 149-160. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.10.052.

Maldonado, A., Betancourt, J.L., Latorre, C., Villagran, C., 2005. Pollen analyses from a 50 000-yr rodent midden series in the southern Atacama Desert (25° 30′ S). Journal of Quaternary Science 20 (5), 493-507. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.936.

Marchant, D.R., Lewis, A.R., Phillips, W.M., Moore, E.J., Souchez, R.A., Denton, G.H., Sugden, D.E., Potter, N., Landis, G.P. 2002. Formation of patterned ground and sublimation till over Miocene glacier ice in Beacon Valley, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114 (6), 718-730.

Marengo, J.A., Soares, W.R., Saulo, C., Nicolini, M. 2004. Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: characteristics and temporal variability. Journal of climate 17 (12), 2261-2280.

Marrero, S.M., Phillips, F.M., Borchers, B., Lifton, N., Aumer, R., Balco, G. 2016a. Cosmogenic nuclide systematics and the CRONUScalc program. Quaternary Geochronology 31, 160-18. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2015.09.005.

Marrero, S.M., Phillips, F.M., Caffee, M.W., Gosse, J.C. 2016b. CRONUS-Earth cosmogenic 36Cl calibration. Quaternary Geochronology 31, 199-219. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2015.10.002.

Mather, A.E., Hartley, A. 2005. Flow events on a hyper-arid alluvial fan: Quebrada Tambores, Salar de Atacama, northern Chile. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 251 (1), 9-24. http://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.251.01.02.

McGlue, M.M., Cohen, A.S., Ellis, G.S., Kowler, A.L. 2013. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna plateau (northwest Argentina). Basin Research 25 (6), 638-658. http://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12025.

Moreiras, S.M., Páez, M.S., Lauro, C., Jeanneret, P., 2016. First cosmogenic ages for glacial deposits from the Plata range (33° S): New inferences for Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Andes. Quaternary International. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.08.041.

Moreno, P.I., Kaplan, M.R., François, J.P., Villa-Martínez, R., Moy, C.M., Stern, C.R., Kubik, P.W., 2009. Renewed glacial activity during the Antarctic cold reversal and persistence of cold conditions until 11.5 ka in southwestern Patagonia. Geology 37 (4), 375-378. http://doi.org/10.1130/G25399A.1.

Placzek, C.J., Quade, J., Patchett, P.J. 2013. A 130ka reconstruction of rainfall on the Bolivian Altiplano. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 363, 97-108.

Ramírez, C.F., Gardeweg, M. 1982. Hoja Toconau, Región de Antofagasta: Carta Geológica de Chile, 1:250,000 Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería de Chile, Boletin v. 54. .

Rodbell, D.T., Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G. 2009. Glaciation in the Andes during the Lateglacial and Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (21), 2165-2212. Doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.03.012.

Sagredo, E.A., Lowell, T.V., Kelly, M.A., Rupper, S., Aravena, J.C., Ward, D.J., Malone, A.G. 2016. Equilibrium line altitudes along the Andes during the Last millennium: Paleoclimatic implications. The Holocene. http://doi.org/10.1177/ 0959683616678458.

Sagredo, E.A., Rupper, S. Lowell, T.V. 2014. Sensitivities of the equilibrium line altitude to temperature and precipitation changes along the Andes. Quaternary Research 81 (2), 355-366. Doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2014.01.008.

Schotterer, U., Grosjean, M., Stichler, W., Ginot, P., Kull, C., Bonnaveira, H., Francou, B., Gäggeler, H.W., Gallaire, R., Hoffmann, G., Pouyaud, B. 2003. Glaciers and climate in the Andes between the Equator and 30°S: What is recorded under extreme environmental conditions?. In: Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future. Springer Netherlands, pp. 157-175.

Smith, C.A., Lowell, T.V., Caffee, M.W. 2009. Lateglacial and Holocene cosmogenic surface exposure age glacial chronology and geomorphological evidence for the presence of cold‐based glaciers at Nevado Sajama, Bolivia. Journal of Quaternary Science 24 (4), 360-372. Doi:10.1002/jqs.1239.

Stichler, W., Schotterer, U., Fröhlich, K., Ginot, P., Kull, C., Gäggeler, H., Pouyaud, B. 2001. Influence of sublimation on stable isotope records recovered from high-altitude glaciers in the tropical Andes. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (D19), 22613-22620.

Stone, J.O., Allan, G.L., Fifield, L.K., Cresswell, R.G. 1996. Cosmogenic chlorine-36 from calcium spallation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60 (4), 679-692.

Vuille, M. 1999. Atmospheric circulation over the Bolivian Altiplano during dry and wet periods and extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation. International Journal of Climatology 19 (14), 1579-1600.

Vuille, M., Ammann, C. 1997. Regional snowfall patterns in the high, arid Andes. In: Climatic Change at High Elevation Sites. Springer Netherlands, pp. 181-191.

Vuille, M., Hardy, D.R., Braun, C., Keimig, F., Bradley, R.S. 1998. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with 1996/1997 summer precipitation events on Sajama Ice Cap, Bolivia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 103 (D10), 11191-11204. http://doi.org/10.1029/98JD00681.

Ward, D.J., Cesta, J.M., Galewsky, J., Sagredo, E. 2015. Late Pleistocene glaciations of the arid subtropical Andes and new results from the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile. Quaternary Science Reviews 128, 98-116. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.09.022.

Wirsig, C., Ivy-Ochs, S., Akçar, N., Lupker, M., Hippe, K., Wacker, L., Vockenhuber, C., Schlüchter, C. 2016. Combined cosmogenic 10Be, in situ 14C and 36Cl concentrations constrain Holocene history and erosion depth of Grueben glacier (CH). Swiss Journal of Geosciences 109 (3), 379-388. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-016-0227-2.

Zech, R., Kull, C., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2007. Exposure dating of Late Glacial and pre-LGM moraines in the Cordon de Doña Rosa, Northern/Central Chile (~31°S). Climate of the Past 3 (1), 1-14. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-1-2007.

Zech, R., Zech, J., Kull, C., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2011. Early last glacial maximum in the southern Central Andes reveals northward shift of the westerlies at~39 ka. Climate of the Past 7 (1), 41-46. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp-7-41-2011.

Zech, R., Kull, C., Veit, H. 2006. Late Quaternary glacial history in the Encierro Valley, northern Chile (29ºS), deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 234 (2), 277-286. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.10.011.

Zech, R., May, J.H., Kull, C., Ilgner, J., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2008. Timing of the late Quaternary glaciation in the Andes from~ 15 to 40ºS. Journal of Quaternary Science 23 (6-7), 635-647. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1200.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18172/cig.3209

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540