The last deglaciation of Peru and Bolivia

B. Mark, N. Stansell, G. Zeballos

Abstract


The tropical Andes of Peru and Bolivia are important for preserving geomorphic evidence of multiple glaciations, allowing for refinements of chronology to aid in understanding climate dynamics at a key location between hemispheres. This review focuses on the deglaciation from Late-Pleistocene maximum positions near the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We synthesize the results of the most recent published glacial geologic studies from 12 mountain ranges or regions within Peru and Bolivia where glacial moraines and drift are dated with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN), as well as maximum and minimum limiting ages based on radiocarbon in proximal sediments. Special consideration is given to document paleoglacier valley localities with topographic information given the strong vertical mass balance sensitivity of tropical glaciers. Specific valley localities show variable and heterogeneous sequences ages and extensions of paleoglaciers, but conform to a generally cogent regional sequence revealed by more continuous lake sedimentary records. There are clear distributions of stratigraphically older and younger moraine ages that we group and discuss chronologically. The timing of the local LGM based on average TCN ages of moraine groups is 25.1 ka, but there are large uncertainties (up to 7 ka) making the relative timing with the global LGM elusive. There are a significant number of post-LGM moraines that date to 18.9 (± 0.5) ka. During the Oldest Dryas (18.0 to 14.6 ka), moraine boulders date to 16.1 (± 1.1) ka, suggesting that glaciers either experienced stillstands or readvances during this interval. The Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR; 14.6 to 12.6 ka) is another phase of stillstanding or readvancing glaciers with moraine groups dating to 13.7 (± 0.8) ka, followed by retreating ice margins through most of the Younger Dryas (YD; 12.9 to 11.8 ka). During the early Holocene, groups of moraines in multiple valleys date to 11.0 (± 0.4) ka, marking a period when glaciers either readvanced or paused from the overall trend of deglaciation. The pattern of glacial variability during the Late Glacial after ~14.6 ka appears to be more synchronous with periods of cooling in the southern high latitudes, and out-of-phase with the overall deglacial trend in the Northern Hemisphere. While insolation and CO2 forcing likely drove the general pattern of deglaciation in the southern tropical Andes, regional ocean-atmospheric and hypsometric controls must have contributed to the full pattern of glacial variability.

Keywords


Tropical Andes; Last Glacial Maximum; terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides; paleoglaciers; deglaciation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, M.B., Seltzer, G.O., Kelts, K.R., Southon, J. 1997. Holocene Paleohydrology of the Tropical Andes From Lake Records. Quaternary Research 47, 70-80. https://doi.org.10.1006/qres.1996.1874.

Alcalá, J., Palacios, D., Zamorano, J.J., Vázquez Selem, L. 2011. Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation of Ampato volcanic complex, Southern Peru. Cuaternario y Geomorfología 25, 121-136.

Baker, P.A., Rigsby, C.A., Seltzer, G.O., Fritz, S.C., Lowenstein, T.K., Bacher, N.P., Veliz, C. 2001a. Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano. Nature 409, 698-701. http://doi.org/10.1038/35055524.

Baker, P.A., Seltzer, G.O., Fritz, S.C., Dunbar, R.B., Grove, M.J., Tapia, P.M., Cross, S.L., Rowe, H.D., Broda, J.P. 2001b. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years. Science 291 (5504), 640-643. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5504.640.

Bird, B.W., Abbott, M.B., Rodbell, D.T., Vuille, M. 2011. Holocene tropical South American hydroclimate revealed from a decadally resolved lake sediment δ18O record. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 310 (3-4), 192-202. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.08.040.

Birkeland, P.W., Rodbell, D.T., Short, S.K. 1989. Radiocarbon-Dates on Deglaciation, Cordillera Central, Northern Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Research 32 (1), 111-113. http://doi.org/10.1016/0033-5894(89)90036-7.

Blard, P.H., Lavé, J., Farley, K.A., Fornari, M., Jiménez, N., Ramirez, V. 2009. Late local glacial maximum in the Central Altiplano triggered by cold and locally-wet conditions during the paleolake Tauca episode (17–15 ka, Heinrich 1). Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (27-28), 3414-3427. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.09.025.

Bradley, R.S., Keimig, F.T., Diaz, H.F., Hardy, D.R. 2009. Recent changes in freezing level heights in the Tropics with implications for the deglacierization of high mountain regions. Geophysical Research Letters 36 (17). http://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037712.

Bradley, R.S., Vuille, M., Hardy, D., Thompson, L.G. 2003. Low latitude ice cores record Pacific sea surface temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (4), 1174. http://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016546.

Bromley, G.R.M., Schaefer, J.M., Hall, B.L., Rademaker, K.M., Putnam, A.E., Todd, C.E., Hegland, M., Winckler, G., Jackson, M.S., Strand, P.D. 2016. A cosmogenic 10Be chronology for the local last glacial maximum and termination in the Cordillera Oriental, southern Peruvian Andes: Implications for the tropical role in global climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 148, 54-67. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.07.010.

Bromley, G.R.M., Schaefer, J.M., Winckler, G., Hall, B.L., Todd, C.E., Rademaker, K.M. 2009. Relative timing of last glacial maximum and late-glacial events in the central tropical Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (23-24), 2514-2526. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.05.012.

Buffen, A.M., Thompson, L.G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Huh, K.I. 2009. Recently exposed vegetation reveals Holocene changes in the extent of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru. Quaternary Research 72 (2), 157-163. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2009.02.007.

Bush, M.B., Hansen, B.C.S., Rodbell, D.T., Seltzer, G.O., Young, K.R., León, B., Abbott, M.B., Silman, M.R., Gosling, W.D. 2005. A 17 000-year history of Andean climate and vegetation change from Laguna de Chochos, Peru. Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 703-714. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.983.

Cardich, A., Cardich, L., Rank, D. 1977. Datierung der jungpleistozanen Vereisung Lauricocha in den Peruanischen Anden. Geologische Rundschau 66, 446-454.

Chiessi, C.M., Mulitza, S., Pätzold, J., Wefer, G., Marengo, J.A. 2009. Possible impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on the South American summer monsoon. Geophysical. Research Letters 36 (21), L21707. http://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039914.

Clapperton, C.M. 1972. The Pleistocene moraine stages of west-central Peru. Journal of Glaciology 11 (62), 255-263. https://doi.org/10.3198/1972JoG11-62-255-263.

Clapperton, C.M. 1979. Glaciation in Bolivia before 3.27 Myr. Nature 277, 375-377. http://doi.org/10.1038/277375a0.

Clapperton, C.M. 1981. Quaternary glaciations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru and the Cordillera Real, Colombia. Colombiana Revista CIAF (Bogota) 6, 95-111.

Clapperton, C.M. 1983. The glaciation of the Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews 2 (2-3), 83-155. http://doi.org/10.1016/0277-3791(83)90005-7.

Clapperton, C.M. 1993. Glacier readvances in the Andes at 12 500–10 000 YR BP: Implications for mechanism of Late-glacial climatic change. Journal of Quaternary Science 8 (3), 197-215. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3390080303.

Clapperton, C.M. 1998. Late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in the Andes: testing the synchrony of global change. Journal of Quaternary Science 6, 65-73.

Clapperton, C.M., Clayton, J.D., Benn, D.I., Marden, C.J., Argollo, J. 1997. Late quaternary glacier advances and Palaeolake highstands in the Bolivian Altiplano. Quaternary International 38, 49-59.

Clayton, J.D., Clapperton, C.M. 1997. Broad synchrony of a Late-glacial glacier advance and the highstand of palaeolake Tauca in the Bolivian Altiplano. Journal of Quaternary Science 12 (3), 169-182. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1417(199705/06)12:3<169::AID-JQS304>3.0.CO;2-S.

Coelho, C.A.S., Uvo, C.B., Ambrizzi, T. 2002. Exploring the impacts of the tropical Pacific SST on the precipitation patterns over South America during ENSO periods. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 71 (3), 185-197. http://doi.org/10.1007/s007040200004.

Doughty, A.M., Schaefer, J.M., Putnam, A.E., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M.R., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Kelley, S.E., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R. 2015. Mismatch of glacier extent and summer insolation in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Geology 43 (5), 407-410. https://doi.org/10.1130/G36477.1.

Fairman, M. 2006. Unpublished Master's thesis, The Ohio State University.

Farber, D.L., Hancock, G.S., Finkel, R.C., Rodbell, D.T. 2005. The age and extent of tropical alpine glaciation in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 759-776.

Garreaud, R.D., Vuille, M., Compagnucci, R., Marengo, J. 2009. Present-day South American climate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281 (3-4), 180-195. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.10.032.

Glasser, N.F., Clemmens, S., Schnabel, C., Fenton, C.R., McHargue, L. 2009. Tropical glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru between 12.5 and 7.6 ka from cosmogenic 10Be dating. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (27-28), 3448-3458. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.10.006.

Goehring, B.M., Muzikar, P., Lifton, N.A. 2013. An in situ 14C–10Be Bayesian isochron approach for interpreting complex glacial histories. Quaternary Geochronology 15, 61-66. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2012.11.007.

Goehring, B.M., Schaefer, J.M., Schluechter, C., Lifton, N.A., Finkel, R.C., Jull, A.T., Akçar, N., Alley, R.B. 2011. The Rhone Glacier was smaller than today for most of the Holocene. Geology 39 (7), 679-682. https://doi.org/10.1130/G32145.1.

Goodman, A.Y., Rodbell, D.T., Seltzer, G.O., Mark, B.G. 2001. Subdivision of glacial deposits in southeastern Peru based on pedogenic development and radiometric ages. Quaternary Research 56, 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1006/qres.2001.2221.

Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M. 2000. Uplift history of the Central and Northern Andes: A review. Geological Society of America Bulletin 112 (7), 1091-1105. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2000)112<1091:UHOTCA>2.0.CO;2.

Hall, S.R., Farber, D.L., Ramage, J.M., Rodbell, D.T., Finkel, R.C., Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G., Kassel, C. 2009. Geochronology of Quaternary glaciations from the tropical Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (25-26), 2991-3009. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.08.004.

Hansen, B.C.S., Rodbell, D.T. 1995. A Late-Glacial/Holocene Pollen Record from the Eastern Andes of Northern Peru. Quaternary Research 44, 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1006/qres.1995.1066.

Hartley, A.J. 2003. Andean uplift and climate change. Journal of the Geological Society 160 (1), 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764902-083.

Hastenrath, S. 1985. A review of Pleistocene to Holocene glacier variations in the tropics. Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie 21, 183-194.

Hastenrath, S. 2009. Past glaciation in the tropics. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (9-10), 790-798. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.12.004.

He, F., Shakun, J.D., Clark, P.U., Carlson, A.E., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B.L., Kutzbach, J.E. 2013. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation. Nature 494, 81-85. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature11822.

Heine, K. 2000. Tropical South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: evidence from glacial, periglacial and fluvial records. Quaternary International 72 (1), 7-21. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(00)00017-3.

Henderson, K.A., Thompson, L.G., Lin, P.N. 1999. Recording El Nino in ice core δ18O records from Nevado Huascaran, Peru. Journal of Geophyscial Research 104 (D24), 31053-031065. http://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900966.

Hillyer, R., Valencia, B.G., Bush, M.B., Silman, M.R., Steinitz-Kannan, M. 2009. A 24,700-yr paleolimnological history from the Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Research 71 (1), 71-82. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2008.06.006.

Insel, N., Poulsen, C.J., Ehlers, T.A., Sturm, C. 2012. Response of meteoric δ18O to surface uplift - Implications for Cenozoic Andean Plateau growth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 317-318, 262-272. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.039.

Johnson, A.M. 1976. The Climate of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. In: W. Schwerdtfeger (Ed.), World Survey of Climatology Volume 12, Climates of Central and South America, Elsevier.

Kanner, L.C., Burns, S.J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L. 2012. High-Latitude Forcing of the South American Summer Monsoon During the Last Glacial. Science 335, 570-573. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1213397.

Kaser, G., Georges, C. 1997. Changes of the equilbrium-line altitude in the tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru, 1930-1950, and their spatial variations. Annals of Glaciology 24, 344-349. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260305500012428.

Kaser, G., Osmaston, H. 2002. Tropical Glaciers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 207 pp.

Kelly, M.A., Lowell, T.V., Applegate, P.J., Phillips, F.M., Schaefer, J.M., Smith, C.A., Kim, H., Leonard, K.C., Hudson, A.M. 2015. A locally calibrated, late glacial 10Be production rate from a low-latitude, high-altitude site in the Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Geochronology 26, 70-85. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quageo.2013.10.007.

Kelly, M.A., Lowell, T.V., Applegate, P.J., Smith, C.A., Phillips, F.M., Hudson, A.M. 2012. Late glacial fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, southeastern Peru. Geology 40 (11), 991-994. https://doi.org/10.1130/G33430.1.

Kienast, M., Kienast, S.S., Calvert, S.E., Eglinton, T.I., Mollenhauer, G., François, R., Mix, A.C. 2006. Eastern Pacific cooling and Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation. Nature 443, 846-849. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature05222.

Kull, C., Imhof, S., Grosjean, M., Zech, R., Veit, H. 2008. Late Pleistocene glaciation in the Central Andes: Temperature versus humidity control—A case study from the eastern Bolivian Andes (17°S) and regional synthesis. Global and Planetary Change 60 (1-2), 148-164. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.03.011.

La Frenierre, J., Huh, K.I., Mark, B.G. 2011. Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. In: J. Ehlers, P.L. Gibbard, P.D. Hughes (Eds.), Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology: A Closer Look, pp. 773-802. http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53447-7.00056-8.

Lal, D. 1991. Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: in situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104 (2-4), 424. http://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90220-C.

Licciardi, J.M., Schaefer, J.M., Taggart, J.R., Lund, D.C. 2009. Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Peruvian Andes indicate northern climate linkages. Science 325 (5948), 1677-1679. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1175010.

Machare, J., Veliz, Y., Ortlieb, L., Dumont, J.-F. 1990. A review of recent paleoclimatic studies in Peru. In: J. Rabassa, M. Salemme (Eds.), Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula 8, A.A. Balkema. Rotterdam, 157-178 pp. http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_7/b_fdi_51-52/010015055.pdf.

Mark, B.G., Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T., Goodman, A.Y. 2002. Rates of deglaciation during the last glaciation and Holocene in the Cordillera Vilcanota-Quelccaya ice cap region, southeastern Peru. Quaternary Research 57 (3), 287-298. http://doi.org/10.1006/qres.2002.2320.

Mark, B.G., Harrison, S., Spessa, A., New, M., Evans, D.J.A., Helmens, K.F. 2005. Tropical snowline changes at the last glacial maximum: A global assessment. Quaternary International 138-139, 168-201. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2005.02.012.

Mark, B.G., Seltzer, G.O. 2005. Evaluation of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (AD 1962-1999): spatial distribution of mass loss and climatic forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (20-21), 2265-2280. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.003.

Maslin, M.A., Burns, S.J. 2000. Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin Effective Moisture Availability over the Past 14,000 Years. Science 290 (5500), 2285-2287. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5500.2285.

Maslin, M.A., Ettwein, V.J., Wilson, K.E., Guilderson, T.P., Burns, S.J., Leng, M.J. 2011. Dynamic boundary-monsoon intensity hypothesis: evidence from the deglacial Amazon River discharge record. Quaternary Science Reviews 30 (27-28), 3823-3833. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.10.007.

Mercer, J.H. 1984. Late Cainozoic glacial variations in South America south of the equator. In: J.C. Vogel (Ed.), Late Cenozoic Paleoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 45-58.

Mercer, J.H., Palacios, O.M. 1977. Radiocarbon dating of last glaciation in Peru. Geology 5, 600-604. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1977)5<600:RDOTLG>2.0.CO;2.

Nobre, P., Srukla, J. 1996. Variations of Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Stress, and Rainfall over the Tropical Atlantic and South America. Journal of Climate 9, 2464-2479. http://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2464:VOSSTW>2.0.CO;2.

Placzek, C., Quade, J., Patchett, P.J. 2006. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano: Implications for causes of tropical climate change. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118, 515-532. https://doi.org/10.1130/B25770.1.

Porter, S.C. 2001. Snowline depression in the tropics during the Last Glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 20 (10), 1067-1091. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00178-5.

Rodbell, D.T. 1992. Late Pleistocene Equilibrium-Line Reconstructions in the Northern Peruvian Andes. Boreas 21, 43-52. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.1992.tb00012.x.

Rodbell, D.T. 1993a. Subdivision of late Pleistocene moraines in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, based on rock-weathering features, soils, and radiocarbon dates. Quaternary Research 39 (2), 133-143. http://doi.org/10.1006/qres.1993.1017.

Rodbell, D.T. 1993b. The Timing of the Last Deglaciation in Cordillera Oriental, Northern Peru, based on Glacial Geology and Lake Sedimentology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 105 (7), 923-934. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1993)105<0923:TTOTLD>2.3.CO;2.

Rodbell, D.T. 2000. The Younger Dryas: Cold, cold everywhere? Science 290 (5490), 285-286. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5490.285.

Rodbell, D.T., Seltzer, G.O. 2000. Rapid ice margin fluctuations during the Younger Dryas in the tropical Andes. Quaternary Research 54 (3), 328-338. http://doi.org/10.1006/qres.2000.2177.

Rodbell, D.T., Seltzer, G.O., Mark, B.G., Smith, J.A., Abbott, M.B. 2008. Clastic sediment flux to tropical Andean lakes: records of glaciation and soil erosion. Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (15-16), 1612-1626. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.06.004.

Rodbell, D.T., Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G. 2009. Glaciation in the Andes during the Lateglacial and Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (21-22), 2165-2212. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.03.012.

Seltzer, G., Rodbell, D., Burns, S. 2000. Isotopic evidence for late Quaternary climatic change in tropical South America. Geology 28, 35-38. https://doi.org/10.1130/00917613(2000)28<35:IEFLQC>2.0.CO;2.

Seltzer, G.O. 1990. Recent glacial history and paleoclimate of the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews 9 (2-3), 137-152. http://doi.org/10.1016/0277-3791(90)90015-3.

Seltzer, G.O. 1992. Late Quaternary Glaciation of the Cordillera Real, Bolivia. Journal of Quaternary Science 7 (2), 87-98. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3390070202.

Seltzer, G.O. 1993. Late-Quaternary Glaciation as a Proxy for Climate-Change in the Central Andes. Mountain Research and Development 13 (2), 129-138. http://doi.org/10.2307/3673630.

Seltzer, G.O. 1994. A Lacustrine Record of Late Pleistocene Climatic-Change in the Subtropical Andes. Boreas 23 (2), 105-111. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3885.1994.tb00591.x.

Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T., Abbott, M. 1995. Andean glacial lakes and climate variability since the Last Glacial Maximum. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Études Andines 24, 539-549. http://www.pitt.edu/~mabbott1/climate/mark/Abstracts/Pubs/Seltzeretal95.pdf.

Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T., Baker, P.A., Fritz, S.C., Tapia, P.M., Rowe, H.D., Dunbar, R.B. 2002. Early warming of tropical South America at the Last Glacial- interglacial transition. Science 296 (5573), 1685-1686. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1070136.

Shakun, J.D., Clark, P.U., He, F., Lifton, N.A., Liu, Z., Otto-Bliesner, B.L. 2015a. Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the last deglaciation. Nature Communications 6, 8059. http://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9059.

Shakun, J.D., Clark, P.U., Marcott, S.A., Brook, E.J., Lifton, N.A., Caffee, M., Shakun, W.R. 2015b. Cosmogenic dating of Late Pleistocene glaciation, southern tropical Andes, Peru. Journal of Quaternary Science 30 (8), 841-847. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2822.

Smith, C.A., Lowell, T.V., Caffee, M.W. 2009. Lateglacial and Holocene cosmogenic surface exposure age glacial chronology and geomorphological evidence for the presence of cold-based glaciers at Nevado Sajama, Bolivia. Journal of Quaternary Science 24 (4), 360-372. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1239.

Smith, C.A., Lowell, T.V., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W. 2011. Late Quaternary glacial chronology on Nevado Illimani, Bolivia, and the implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions across the Andes. Quaternary Research 75 (1), 1-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2010.07.001.

Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G., Rodbell, D.T. 2008. The timing and magnitude of mountain glaciation in the tropical Andes. Journal of Quaternary Science 23 (6-7), 609-634. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1224.

Smith, J.A., Rodbell, D.T. 2010. Cross-cutting moraines reveal evidence for North Atlantic influence on glaciers in the tropical Andes. Journal of Quaternary Science 25 (3), 243-248. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1393.

Smith, J.A., Seltzer, G.O., Farber, D.L., Rodbell, D.T., Finkel, R.C. 2005. Early Local Last Glacial Maximum in the Tropical Andes. Science 308 (5722), 678-681.https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1107075.

Stansell, N.D., Licciardi, J.M., Rodbell, D., Mark, B.G. forthcoming. Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peruvian Andes. Geophysical Research Letters revisions pending.

Stansell, N.D., Rodbell, D.T., Licciardi, J.M., Abbott, M.B., Mark, B.G., Schweinsberg, A.D. 2013. Proglacial lake sediment, cosmogenic ages and stable isotopes record Holocene climate changes in the tropical Peruvian Andes, AGU Fall Meeting.

Stansell, N.D., Rodbell, D.T., Licciardi, J.M., Sedlak, C.M., Schweinsberg, A.D., Huss, E.G., Delgado, G.M., Zimmerman, S.H., Finkel, R.C. 2015. Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations at Nevado Huaguruncho in the Eastern Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes. Geology 43 (8), 747-750. http://doi.org/10.1130/G36735.1.

Stone, J.O. 2000. Air pressure and cosmogenic isotope production. Journal of Geophysical Research 105 (B10), 23753-23759. http://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900181.

Stroup, J.S., Kelly, M.A., Lowell, T.V., Applegate, P.J., Howley, J.A. 2014. Late Holocene fluctuations of Qori Kalis outlet glacier, Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peruvian Andes. Geology 42 (49), 347-350. http://doi.org/10.1130/G35245.1.

Thompson, L.G., Davis, M.E., Mosley-Thompson, E., Sowers, T.A., Henderson, K.A., Zagorodnov, V.S., Lin, P.N., Mikhalenko, V.N., Campen, R.K., Bolzan, J.F., Cole-Dai, J., Francou, B. 1998. A 25,000-year tropical climate history from Bolivian ice cores. Science 282 (5395), 1858-1864. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5395.1858.

Thompson, L.G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Brecher, H., Davis, M., León, B., Les, D., Lin, P.N., Mashiotta, T., Mountain, K. 2006. Abrupt tropical climate change: Past and present. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (28), 10536-10543. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603900103.

Thompson, L.G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M.E., Lin, P.N., Henderson, K.A., Cole-Dai, J., Bolzan, J.F. 1995. Late glacial stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru. AGU 1995 spring meeting Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 76, 176.

Vuille, M., Bradley, R.S., Keimig, F. 2000. Interannual climate variability in the Central Andes and its relation to tropical Pacific and Atlantic forcing. Journal of Geophyscial Research 105 (D10), 12447-12460. http://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900134.

Vuille, M., Burns, S.J., Taylor, B.L., Cruz, F.W., Bird, B.W., Abbott, M.B., Kanner, L.C., Cheng, H., Novello, V.F. 2012. A review of the South America monsoon history as recorded in stable isotope proxies over the past two millennia. Climate of the Past 8, 1309-1321. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1309-2012.

Vuille, M., Francou, B., Wagnon, P., Juen, I., Kaser, G., Mark, B.G., Bradley, R.S. 2008a. Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future. Earth-Science Reviews 89, 79-96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.escirev.2008.04.002.

Vuille, M., Kaser, G., Juen, I. 2008. Glacier mass balance variability in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru and its relationship with climate and the large-scale circulation. Global and Planetary Change 62 (1-2), 14-28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.11.003.

Vuille, M., Werner, M. 2005. Stable isotopes in precipitation recording South American summer monsoon and ENSO variability: observations and model results. Climate Dynamics 25 (4), 401-413. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-005-0049-9.

Weng, C.Y., Bush, M.B., Curtis, J.H., Kolata, A.L., Dillehay, T.D., Binford, M.W. 2006. Deglaciation and Holocene climate change in the western Peruvian Andes. Quaternary Research 66 (1), 87-96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2006.01.004.

Wright, H.E. 1983. Late-Pleistocene glaciation and climate around the Junin Plain Central Peruvian highlands. Geografiska Annaler 65A (1-2), 35-43. http://doi.org/10.2307/520719.

Wright, H.E. 1984. Late Glacial and late Holocene moraines in the Cerros Cuchpanga, Central Peru. Quaternary Research 21 (3), 275-285. http://doi.org/10.1016/0033-5894(84)90068-1.

Zech, J., Zech, R., May, J.-H., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2010. Lateglacial and early Holocene glaciation in the tropical Andes caused by La Niña-like conditions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 293 (1-2), 248-254. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.026.

Zech, R., Kull, C., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2007. LGM and Late Glacial glacier advances in the Cordillera Real and Cochabamba (Bolivia) deduced from 10Be surface exposure dating. Climate of the Past Discussions 3, 839-869. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-623-2007.

Zech, R., May, J.-H., Kull, C., Ilgner, J., Kubik, P.W., Veit, H. 2008. Timing of the late Quaternary glaciation in the Andes from ∼15 to 40° S. Journal of Quaternary Science 23 (6-7), 635-647. http://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1200.

Zech, R., Smith, J.A., Kaplan, M. 2009. Chronologies of the Last Glacial Maximum and its Termination in the Andes (∼10–55S) Based on Surface Exposure Dating. In: F. Vimeux, F. Sylvestre, M. Khodri (Eds.), Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions, Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research 14, Springer, pp, 61-87. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2672-9_3.

Zhou, J., Lau, K.-M. 1998. Does a Monsoon Climate Exist over South America? Journal of Climate 11, 1020-1040. http://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<1020:DAMCEO>2.0.CO;2.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18172/cig.3265

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540