Ecosystem services provision by gully control. A review


  • A. Romero-Díaz Universidad de Murcia
  • E. Díaz-Pereira Grupo de Conservación de Suelo y Agua, CEBAS, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
  • J. De Vente Grupo de Conservación de Suelo y Agua, CEBAS, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas



ecosystem services, gully control, soil and water conservation, sustainable land management, WOCAT


Gully erosion causes severe damage to crops and infrastructures and affects the provision of ecosystem services worldwide. To assess the potential of gully control measures to protect ecosystem services and assess the conditions required for their large-scale implementation, this paper critically evaluates a range of gully control measures documented in the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT). Environmental and socio-economic impacts of technologies are assessed, as well as the implications for ecosystem services, costs and benefits of implementation, and stakeholder’s perception. It is demonstrated how gully control measures provide notable on-site and off-site benefits for socio-economic, cultural, ecological, and production goals, and to protect crucial ecosystem services. Control measures particularly contribute to soil and water conservation and to regulating ecosystem services by controlling soil erosion, water cycling, and natural hazards. Most effective control measures consist of combined vegetative and structural measures and of catchment wide interventions. While implementation of gully control can initially be expensive, on the long term, the cost-benefit ratio is usually positive. Moreover, the results emphasize the importance of evaluating control measures considering monetary aspects and all ecosystem services they provide. Nevertheless, individual farmers can often not afford the implementation and maintenance costs due to barriers for implementation and therefore require sustained institutional support. 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

A. Romero-Díaz, Universidad de Murcia

Catedrática de Geografía Física, Universidad de Murcia


Addis, H.K., Adugna, B., Gebretsadik, M., Ayalew, B. 2015. Gully Morphology and Rehabilitation measures in different agroecological environments of Northwestern Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Article ID 789479, 8 pp.

Avni, Y. 2005. Gully incision as a key factor in desertification in an arid environment, the Negev highlands, Israel. Catena 63, 185-220.

Baade, J., Barsch, D., Maüsbacher, R., Schukraft, G. 1993. Field experiments on the reduction of sediment yield from arable land to receiving water courses (N-Kraichgau, SW-Germany). In: S. Wicherek (Ed.), Farm Land Erosion in Temperate Plains and Hills. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 471-480.

Bakker, M.M., Govers, G., Rounsevell, M. 2004. The crop productivity-erosion relationship: an analysis based on experimental work. Catena 57, 55-76. catena.2003.07.002.

Bakker, M.M., Govers, G., Jones, R.A., Rounsevell, M. 2007. The effect of soil erosion on Europe‘s crop yields. Ecosystems 10, 1209-1219.

Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A. 2009. Erosive and environmental impacts of hydrological correction check dam. In: W.P. Hayes, M.C. Bornes (Eds.), Dams: Impacts, Stability and Design. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp. 161-178.

Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A. 2013. Interceptación de la lluvia por la vegetación en España. IEA (Instituto Euromediterráneo del Agua), Murcia.

Blanco-Canqui, H., Gantzer, C.J., Anderson, S.H. 2006. Performance of grass barriers and filter strips under interrill and concentrated flow. Journal of Environmental Quality 35 (6), 1969-1974.

Boix-Fayos, C., Barbera, G.G., López-Bermúdez, F., Castillo, V. 2007. Effects of check dams, reforestation and land-use changes on river channel morphology: Case study of the Rogativa catchment (Murcia, Spain). Geomorphology 91 (1-2), 103-123. geomorph.2007.02.003.

Boody, G., Vondracek, B., Andow, D.A., Krinke, M., Westra, I., Zimmerman, J., Welle, P. 2005. Multifunctional Agriculture in the United States. BioScience 55 (1), 27-38.[0027: MAITUS]2.0.CO;2.

Bravo-Espinosa, M., Serrato-Barajas, B., Medina-Orozco, L., Fregoso-Tirado, LE. 2007. Rehabilitación de taludes en cárcavas de la subcuenca de Cointzio, Michoacán. In: M. Bravo Espinosa, C. Sánchez-Brito, F.O. Rulfo Vilchis, L.E. Fregoso Tirado (Eds.), Bases metodológicas para el manejo integral de cuencas hidrológicas. Libro Técnico No. 4. INIF AP.Uruapan, Michoacán, México, pp. 214-226.

Bravo-Espinosa, M., Mendoza, M.E., Medina-Orozco, L., Sáenz-Reyes, T. 2010. Characteristics and Control of Gully Erosion. Terra Latinoamericana 28, 281-285.

Brown, L.R. 1981. Eroding the base of civilization. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 36 (5), 255-260. Burkard, M.B., Kostaschuk, R.A. 1997. Patterns and controls of gully growth along the shoreline of lake Huron. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22, 901-911.<901:AID-ESP743>3.0.CO;2-O.

Burylo, M., Rey, F., Mathys, N., Dutoit, T. 2012. Plant root traits affecting the resistance of soils to concentrated flow erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 37, 1463-1470.

Camacho Valdez, V., Ruiz Luna, A. 2012. Conceptual framework and classification of Ecosystem Services. Biociencias 1 (4), 3-15.

Castillo, V.M., Mosch, W.M., García, C.C., Barbera, G.G., Cano, J.A.N., López-Bermúdez, F. 2007. Effectiveness and geomorphological impacts of check dams for soil erosion control in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment: El Carcavo (Murcia, Spain). Catena 70, 416-427.

Castillo, C., Pérez, R., Gómez, J.A. 2014. A conceptual model of check dam hydraulics for gully control: efficiency, optimal spacing and relation with step-pools. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, 1705-1721., 2014.

Castillo, C., Gómez, J.A. 2016. A century of gully erosion research: Urgency, complexity and study approaches. Earth-Science Reviews 160, 300-319. earscirev.2016.07.009.

Cisneros, J., Cholaky, C., Cantero Gutiérrez, A., González, J., Reynero, M., Diez, A., Bergesio, L. 2012. Erosión hídrica. Principios y técnicas de manejo. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina.

Costanza, R. 2008. Ecosystem services: multiple classification systems are needed. Biological Conservation 141, 350-352.

Cotler, H., López, C.A., Martínez-Trinidad, S. 2011. ¿Cuánto nos cuesta la erosión de los suelos? Aproximación a una valoración económica de la pérdida de suelos agrícolas en México. Investigación Ambiental 3, 31-43.

Coutancier, B. 2004. Restaurer la montagne. Photographies des eaux et forêts du XIXe siècle. Somogy Éditions d’Art, Paris.

Dabny, S.M., Meyer, L.D., Dunn, G.H., Foster, G.R., Alonso, C.V. 1996. Stiff grass hedges. A vegetative alternative for sediment control. Proceedings of the Sixth Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference vol. 2 (X), 62-69.

Daniels, R.B., Gilliam, J.W. 1996. Sediment and chemical load reduction by grass and riparian filters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60 (1), 246-251.

De Baets, S., Poesen, J., Gyssels, G., Knapen, A. 2006. Effects of grass roots on the erodibility of topsoils during concentrated flow. Geomorphology 76, 54-67.

De Baets, S., Poesen, J., Knapen, A., Galindo Morales, P. 2007. Impact of root architecture, soil characteristics and flow shear stress on the erosion-reducing potential of roots during concentrated flow. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 32, 1323-1345. https://doi. org/10.1002/esp.1470.

De Baets, S., Poesen, J., Reubens, B., Muys, B., De Baerdemaeker, J., Meersmans, J. 2009. Methodological framework to select plant species for controlling rill and gully erosion: application to a Mediterranean ecosystem. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1374-1392.

De Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A., Boumans, R.M.J. 2002. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological Economics 41 (3), 393-408.

De Vente, J., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G. 2005. The application of semi-quantitative methods and reservoir sedimentation rates for the prediction of basin sediment yield in Spain. Journal of Hydrology 305, 63-86.

Den Biggelaar, C., Lal, R., Wiebe, K., Breneman, V. 2004. The global impact of soil erosion on productivity. 1: Absolute and Relative Erosion-induced Yield Losses. Advances in Agronomy 81, 1-48.

Desmet, P.J.J., Poesen, J., Govers, G., Vandaele, K. 1999. Importance of slope gradient and contributing area for optimal prediction of the initiation and trajectory of ephemeral gullies. Catena 37 (3-4), 377-392.

Desta, L., Adugna, B. 2012. A Field Guide on Gully Prevention and Control. Nile Basin Initiative. Díaz, S. 2006. Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. In: R. Hassan, R. Scholes, N. Ash (Eds.), Ecosystems and hu-human well-being: Current state and trends, Vol. 1. Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Dominati, E., Patterson, M., Mackay, A. 2010. A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecological Economics 69, 1858-1868.

Ehrensperger, A., Bach, S., Liniger, H., Portner, B., Ayele, H. 2015. Effectiveness of jatropha barriers as a soil and water conservation technology to rehabilitate gullies in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 70 (2), 33-38.

Ene, G.E., Okogbue, C. O. 2015. Construction and Performance of Geo-engineering Structures for Combating Gully Erosion in South-Eastern Nigeria. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory 2, 857-864.

Erktan, A., Cécillon, L., Roose, E., Frascaria-Lacoste, N., Rey, F. 2013. Morphological diversity of plant barriers does not increase sediment retention in eroded marly gullies under ecological restoration. Plant Soil 370, 653-669.

FAO, 2000. Manual on the Integrated Soil Management and Conservation Practices. FAO, Rome.

Ferrer, G., La Roca, F., Gual, M. 2012. Servicios ecosistémicos: ¿una herramienta para la protección o para la mercantilización de la naturaleza? XIII Jornadas de Economía crítica, 291-294.

Fiener, P., Auerswald, K. 2006. Seasonal variation of grassed waterway effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment delivery from agricultural watersheds in temperate Europe. Soil & Tillage Research 87, 48-58.

Frankl, A., Poesen, J., Haile, M., Deckers, J., Nyssen, J. 2013. Quantifying long-term changes in gully networks and volumes in dryland environments: the case of Northern Ethiopia. Geomorphology 201, 254-263.

Frankl, A., Deckers, J., Moulaert, L., Van Damme, A., Haile, M., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J. 2014. Integrated solutions for combating gully erosion in areas prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Etiopia. Land Degradation and Development 27, 1797-1804.

Gallart, F., Marignani, M., Pérez-Gallego, N., Santi, E., Maccherini, S. 2013. Thirty years of studies on badlands, from physical to vegetational approaches. A succinct review. Catena 106, 4-11.

García Ruíz, J.M., Puigdefábregas, J. 1985. Efectos de la construcción de pequeñas presas en cauces anastomosados del Pirineo Central. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 10, 91-102.

Godwin Ezekwesili, E., Celestine Obialo, O. 2015. Construction and Performance of Geo-engineering Structures for Combating Gully Erosion in South-Eastern Nigeria. In: G. Lollino, D. Giordan, G.B. Crosta (Eds.), 12th International IAEG Congress Torino (Italy). IAEG. Engineering geology for society and territory. Landslide processes 2, 857-864.

Giger, M., Liniger, H., Sauter, C., Schwilch, G. 2015. Economic benefits and costs of sustainable land management technologies: an analysis of WOCAT’s global data. Land Degradation and Development 29 (4), 962-974.

Gómez, B., Banbury, K., Marden, M., Trustrum, N.A., Peacock, D.H., Hoskin, P.J. 2003. Gully erosion and sediment production, Te Weraroa Stream, New Zealand. Water Resources Research 39 (7), 1187., 2003.

Gómez, J.A., Francia, J.R., Guzmán, G., Vanwalleghem, T., Durán Zuazo, V.H., Castillo, C., Aranda, M., Cárceles, B., Moreno, A., Torrent, L., Barrón, V. 2017. Lateral transfer of organic carbon and phosphorus by water erosion at hillslope scale in southern Spain olive orchards. Vadose Zone Journal 16 (12).

Gómez Gutiérrez, A., Schnabel, S., Lavado Contador, F. 2011. Procesos, factores y consecuencias de la erosión por cárcavas. Trabajos desarrollados en la Península Ibérica. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 55, 59-80.

Haile, G.W., Fetene, M. 2012. Assesment of soil erosion hazard in Kilie catchment, East Shoa, Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 23, 293-306. Hansen, W.F., Law, D.L. 2008. Gully control on the Sumter National Forest in S.C. Proceedings of the 2008 South Carolina Water Resources Conference.

Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., de Wit, J., Haile, M., Govers, G., Deckers, S. 2003. Reservoirs in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia): Characteristics and sediment deposition problems. Land Degradation and Development 17 (2), 211-230.

Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., Govers, G., Verstraeten, G., de Vente, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J., Haile, M, 2008. Sediment yield variability in Northern Ethiopia: A quantitative analysis of its controlling factors. Catena 75, 65-76.

Haregeweyn, N., Tsunekawa, A., Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Tsubo, M., Meshesha, DT., Schütt, B., Adgo, E., Tegegne, F. 2015. Soil erosion and conservation in Ethiopia: A review. Progress in Physical Geography 39 (6), 750-774.

Heede, B.H., Mufich, J.G. 1974. Field and computer procedures for gully control by check dams. Journal of Environmental Management 2, 1-49.

Heede, B.H. 1977. A case study of a watershed rehabilitation project: Alkali Creek Colorado. Res. Pap. RM-189. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Heede, B.H. 1982. Gully control: determining treatment priorities for gullies in a network. Environmental Management 6 (5), 441-451.

Hein, L. 2007. Assessing the costs of land degradation: a case study for the Puentes catchments, Southeast Spain. Land Degradation and Development 18, 631-642.

Ionita, I. 2011. The human impact on soil erosion and gullying in the Moldavian Plateau, Romania. Landform Analysis 17, 71-73.

Ionita, I., Fullen, M.A., Zgłobicki, W., Poesen, J. 2015. Gully erosion as a natural and human-induced hazard. Natural Hazards 79, S1-S5.

Issaka, S., Ashraf, M.A. 2017. Impact of soil erosion and degradation on water quality: A review. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes 1 (1), 1-11.

Kennedy, A., Gillen, J., Keetch, B., Creaser, C., Communit, M. 2001. Gully erosion control at Kantju Gorge, Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, central Australia. Ecological management & Restoration 2 (1), 17-27.

Kirkby, M.J., Bracken, L.J. 2009. Gully processes and gully dynamics. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34 (14), 1841-1851.

Knight, K.W., Schultz, R.C., Mabry, C.M., Isenhart, T.M. 2010. Ability of remnant riparian forests, with and without grass filters, to buffer concentrated surface runoff. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 46 (2), 311-322.

Lal, R. 1992. Restoring land degraded by gully erosion in the tropics. Advances in Soil Science 17, 123-152.

Leguédois, S., Ellis, T.W., Hairsine, P.B., Tongway, D.J. 2008. Sediment trapping by a tree belt: processes and consequences for sediment delivery. Hydrological Processes 22, 3523-3534.

Li, H., Cruse, R.M., Bingner, R.L., Gesch, K.R., Zhang, X. 2016. Evaluating ephemeral gully erosion impact on Zea mays L. yield and economics using AnnAGNPS. Soil and Tillage Research 155, 157-165.

Liggitt, B., Fincham, R.J. 1989. Gully erosion: the neglected dimension in soil erosion research. South African Journal of Science 85 (1), 18-20.

Luck, G.W., Harrington, R., Harrison, P.A., Kremen, C., Berry, P.M., Bugter, R., Dawson, T.P., de Bello, F., Diaz, S., Feld, C.K., Haslett, J.R., Hering, D., Kontogianni, A., Lavorel, S., Rounsevell, M., Samways, M.J., Sandin, L., Settele, J., Sykes, M.T., van den Hove, S., Vandewalle, M., Zobel, M. 2009. Quantifying the Contribution of Organisms to the Provision of Ecosystem Services. Bioscience 59 (3), 223-235.

MA [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment] 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Mansour Jahantigh, M., Pessarakli, M. 2011. Causes and Effects of Gully Erosion on Agricultural Lands and the Environment. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 42 (18), 2250-2255.

Martín-Moreno, C., Fidalgo Hijano, C., Martín Duque, J.F., González-Martín, J.A., Zapico, I., Laronne, J. 2014. The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin. Geomorphology 224, 122-138.

Martineli Costa, F., Prado Bacellar, L.A. 2007. Analysis of the influence of gully erosion in the flow pattern of catchment streams, Southeastern Brazil. Catena 69, 230-238.

Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A. Antón-Fernández, C., Ramos, M.C., 2003. Sediment production in large gullies of the Mediterranean area (NE Spain) from high-resolution digital elevation models and geographical information systems analysis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28 (5), 443-456.

Martínez Castroviejo, R., Inbar, M., Gómez villar, A., García Ruíz, J.M. 1990. Cambios en el cauce aguas debajo de una presa de retención de sedimentos. I Reunión Nacional de Geomorfología, Teruel, 457-468.

Marzolff, I., Poesen, J., Ries, J.B. 2011. Short to medium-term gully development: human activity and gully erosion variability in selected Spanish gully catchments. Landform Analysis 17, 111-116

Mekdaschi Studer, R., Liniger, H. 2007. Use of WOCAT tools and network to prepare for SLM adaptation to climate change – identification of conservation technologies suitable for climate change. Available at:

Mekonnen, M., Keesstra, S.D., Stroosnijder, L., Baartman, J.E, Maroulis, J. 2015. Soil conservation through sediment trapping: a review. Land Degradation and Development 26, 544-556.

Meyer, L.D., Dabney, S.M., Harmon, W.C. 1995. Sediment-trapping effectiveness of stiff-grass hedges. Transactions of the ASAE 38 (3), 809-815.

Milton, L. E. 1971. A review of gully erosion and its control. Soil Conservation Authority, Victoria. Moges, A., Holden, N.M. 2008. Estimating the rate and consequences of gully development, a case study of umbulo catchment in Southern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 19, 574-586.

Mongil, J., Navarro, J., Díaz, V. 2015. Esquema ecológico aplicado a una restauración forestal en cárcavas de la Sierra de Ávila (centro de España). Madera y Bosques 21 (1), 11-19.

Mora Jordano, J., Lora González, A., Castillo Rodríguez, C., Muñoz Macías, F., Rojo Aranda, M., Gómez Calero, J. 2013. Técnicas de control de cárcavas mediante el uso de vegetación forestal y diques de retención en explotaciones agrícolas. El caso de la finca “La Veguilla”. 6º Congreso Forestal español, pp. 2-14.

Morgan, R.P.C. 1995. Soil Erosion and Conservation. Second Edition. Longman, Essex.

Morris, B.T., Johnson, D.C. 1943. Hydraulic Design of Drop Structures for Gully-Control. Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers 108, 887-940.

Nadal Romero, E., Regüés, D. 2010. Geomorphological dynamics of subhumid mountain badland areas – weathering, hydrological and suspended sediment transport processes: A case study in the Aragua´s catchment (Central Pyrenees) and implications for altered hydroclimatic regimes. Progress in Physical Geography 34 (2), 123-150. https://doi. org/10.1177/0309133309356624.

Nadal Romero, E., Torri, D., Yair, A. 2013. Updating the badlands experience. Catena 106, 1-3.

Nearing, M., Pruski, F.F., O’Neal, M.R. 2004. Expected climate change impacts on soil erosion rates: A review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 59 (1), 43-50.

Nyssen, J., Veyret-Picot, M., Poesen, J. 2004. The effectiveness of loose rock check dams for gully control in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Soil Use and Management 20 (1), 55-64.

Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Haile, M. 2009. Effects of land use and land cover on sheet and rill erosion rates in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 53, 171-197.

Obi Lawrence, E. 2017. Application of retaining wall in the control of flooding and gully erosion. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 6 (9), 203-206.

Ohde, N.R. 2011. Ephemeral gullies and ecosystem services: Social and biophysical factors. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University.

Okagbue, C.O., Uma, K.O. 1987. Performance of gully erosion control measures in southeastern Nigeria. IAHS Publications 167, 163-172.

Ollobarren, P., Capra, A., Gelsomino, A., La Spada, C. 2016. Effects of ephemeral gully erosion on soil degradation in a cultivated area in Sicily (Italy). Catena 145, 334-345. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.06.031.

Palacio-Prieto, J.L., López-Blanco, J. 1994. Using video imagery for gully erosion evaluation. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 38 (1), 33-43.

Panagos, P., Standardi, G., Borrelli, P., Lugato, E., Montanarella, L., Bosello, F. 2018. Cost of agricultural productivity loss due to soil erosion in the European Union: From direct cost evaluation approaches to the use of macroeconomic models. Land Degradation and Development 18, 1-14.

Pathak, P., Wan, S.P., Sudi, R. 2005. Gully Control in SAT Watershed. Global Theme in Agroecosystem. Report No. 15. International Crop Research Institute for Semiarid Tropic, 28 pp.

Poesen, J., Vandaele, K., van Wesemael, B. 1996. Contribution of gully erosion to sediment production in cultivated lands and rangelands. IAHS Publications 236, 251-266.

Poesen, J., Hooke, J.M. 1997. Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progress in Physical Geography 21 (2), 157-199. /10.1177/030913339702100201.

Poesen, J., Vandekerckhove, L., Nachtergaele, J., Oostwoud Wijdenes, D., Verstraeten, G., van Wesemael, B. 2002. Gully erosion in dryland environments. In: L.J. Bull, M.J. Kirkby (Eds.), Dryland Rivers: Hydrology and Geomorphology of Semi-Arid Channels. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 229-262.

Poesen, J., Valentin, C. (Eds.). 2003. Gully erosion and Global Change. Catena 50 (2-4), 87-564. Poesen, J., Nachtergaele, J., Verstraeten, G., Valentin, C. 2003. Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena 50 (2-4), 91-133.

Poesen, J., Vanwalleghem, T., de Vente, J., Knapen, A., Verstraeten, G., Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A. 2006. Gully erosion in Europe. In: J. Boardman, J. Poesen (Eds), Soil erosion in Europe. Wiley, Chichester, pp 515-536.

Poesen, J. 2011. Challenges in gully erosion research. Landform Analysis 17, 5-9.

Poesen, J. 2018. Soil erosion in the Anthropocene: Research needs. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43, 64-84.

Polyakov, V.O., Nichols, M.H., McClaran, M.P., Nearing, M.A. 2014. Effect of check dams on runoff, sediment yield, and retention on small semiarid watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 69, 414-421.

Potschin, M.B., Haines-Young, R.H. 2011. Ecosystem services: Exploring a geographical perspective. Progress in Physical Geography 35 (5), 575-594. https://doi. org/10.1177/0309133311423172.

Quiñonero-Rubio, J.M., Nadeu, E., Boix-Fayos, C., de Vente, J. 2016. Evaluation of the effectiveness of forest restoration and check-dams to reduce catchment sediment yield. Land Degradation and Development 27, 1018-1031.

Rey, F. 2003. Influence of vegetation distribution on sediment yield in forested marly gullies. Catena 50, 549-562.

Richet, J.B., Ouvry, J.F., Saunier, M. 2016. The role of vegetative barriers such as fascines and dense shrub hedges in catchment management to reduce runoff and erosion effects: Experimental evidence of efficiency, and conditions of use. Ecological Engineering 103, 455-469.

Ries, J.B., Marzolff, I. 2003. Monitoring of gully erosion in the Central Ebro Basin by large-scale aerial photography taken from a remotely controlled blimp. Catena 50, 309-328. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00133-9.

Ritchie, J.C., Kemper, W.D., Englert, J.M. 1997. Narrow stiff grass hedges for erosion control. IAHS Publications 245, 195-203.

Romero Díaz, A., Martínez Lloris, M., Alonso Sarria, F., Belmonte Serrato, F., Marín Sanleandro, P., Ortiz Silla, R., Rodriguez Estrella, T., Sánchez Toribio, M.I. 2007. Los diques de corrección hidrológica. Cuenca del río Quipar (Sureste de España). Editum. Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, 271 pp.

Romero Díaz, A., Martínez Hernández, C., Belmonte Serrato, F. 2016. Procesos de erosión en áreas abandonadas de la Región de Murcia. In: A. Romero Díaz (Coord.), Abandono de cultivos en la Región de Murcia. Consecuencias ecogeomorfológicas. Editum, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, 85-110.

Sagarpa. 2009. Control de Cárcavas. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación, México.

Santos Telles, T. Guimarães, M.F., Falci Dechen, S.C. 2011. The costs of soil erosion. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 35 (2), 287-298.

Sanz, M.J., de Vente, J., Chotte, J.L., Bernoux, M., Kust, G., Ruiz, I., Almagro, M., Alloza, J.A., Vallejo, R., Castillo, V., Hebel, A., Akhtar-Schuster, M. 2017. Sustainable land management contribution to successful land-based climate change adaptation and mitigation. A Report of the Science-Policy Interface. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). Bonn, Germany.

Schmiedel, U., Kruspe, M., Kayser, L. Oettlé, N. 2016. The ecological and financial impact of soil erosion and its control – a case study from the semiarid Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Land Degradation & Development 28, 74-82.

Schouten, C.J., Rang, M.C. 1984. Measurement of gully erosion and the effects of soil conservation techniques in Puketurua experimental Basin (New Zealand). Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie N.F. Supplement band 49, 151-164.

Shellberg, J.G., Brooks, A.P., Rose, C.W. 2013. Sediment production and yield from an alluvial gully in northern Queensland, Australia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 1765-1779.

Sheng, J., Liao, A. 1997. Erosion control in South China. Catena 29, 211-221. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0341-8162(96)00057-4.

Sherard, J.L., Ryker, N.L., Decker, R.S. 1972. Piping in earth dams of dispersive clay. Proceedings of the Special Conference on the Performance of Earth and Earth Supported Structures. ASCE, pp. 150-161.

Sillmann, J., Kharin, V.V., Zwiers, F.W., Zhang, X., Bronaugh, D. 2013. Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 2. Future climate projections. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, 2473-2493.

Soil Conservation Society of America (now Soil and Water Conservation Society). 1982. Resource conservation glossary. 3rd ed. Soil Conserv. Soc. Am., Ankeny, IA.

Stokes, A., Atger, C., Glyn Bengough, A., Fourcaud, T., Sidle, R.C. 2009. Desirable plant root traits for protecting natural and engineered slopes against landslides. Plant and Soil 324, 1-30.

Stokes, A., Sotir, R., Chen, W., Ghestem, M. 2010. Soil bio-and ecoengineering in China: past experience and future priorities. Ecological Engineering 36, 247-257. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.07.008.

Styzcen, M.E., Morgan, R.P.C. 1995. Engineering properties of vegetation. In: R.P.C Morgan, R.J. Rickson (Eds), Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control: A Bioengineering Approach. E & FN SPON, London, pp. 5-58.

Sun, Y., Solomon, S., Dai, A., Portmann, R.W. 2007. How often will it rain? Journal of Climate 20, 4801-4818.

Thornes, J.B. 1990. Vegetation and Erosion-Processes and Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Toy, T.J., Foster, G.R., Renard, K.G. 2002. Soil Erosion: Processes, Prediction, Measurement, and Control. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Valentin, C., Poesen, J., Li, Y. 2005. Gully erosion: Impacts, factors and control. Catena 63, 132-153.

Vandekerckhove, L., Poesen, J., Oostwoud, D.J., de Figueiredo, T. 2000. Thresholds for gully initiation and sedimentation in Mediterranean Europe. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25 (11), 1201-1220.<1201:AID-ESP131>3.0.CO;2-L.

Vandekerckhove, L., Poesen, J., Wijdenes, D.O., Gyssels, G. 2001. Short-term bank gully retreat rates in Mediterranean environments. Catena 44, 133-161.

Vanmaercke, M., Poesen, J., Van Mele, B., Demuzere, M., Bruynseels, A., Golosov, V., Rodrigues Bezerra, J.F., Bolysov, S., Dvinskih, A., Frankl, A., Fuseina, Y., Teixeira Guerra, A.J., Haregeweyn, N., Ionita, I., Makanzu Imwangana, F., Moeyersons, J., Moshe, I., Nazari Samani, A., Niacsui, L., Nyssen, J., Otsuki, Y., Radoane, M., Rysin, I., Ryzhovr,YV., Yermolaev, O. 2016. Earth-Science Reviews 154, 336-355.

Weinhold, M. 2007. The Alkali Creek Story: 40 years of gully control. Proceedings of the Forest Service National Earth Sciences. Conference, San Diego, CA, 18-22 October 2004, PNWGTR-689, 271 pp.

WOCAT, 2016. World overview of conservation approaches and technologies questionnaire on sustainable land management (SLM). Consult WOCAT at:

Yitbarek, T.W., Belliethathan, S., Stringer, I.C. 2012. The onsite cost of gully erosion and cost-benefit of gully rehabilitation: a case study in Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development 23, 157-166.

Yuan, Y.P., Bingner, R.L., Locke, M.A. 2009. A review of effectiveness of vegetative buffers on sediment trapping in agricultural areas. Ecohydrology 2, 321-336.

Zhang, G.H., Liu, G.B., Wang, G.L. 2010. Effects of Caragana korshinskii Kom. cover on runoff, sediment yield and nitrogen loss. International Journal of Sediment Research 25, 245-257.

Zhang, Y., Hernandez, M., Anson, E., Nearing, M.A., Wei, H., Stone, J.J., Heilman, P. 2012. Modeling climate change effects on runoff and soil erosion in southeastern Arizona rangelands and implications for mitigation with conservation practices, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67, 390-405,

Zhou, X., Helmers, M.J., Al-Kaisi, M., Hanna, H.M. 2009. Cost-effectiveness and cost benefit analysis of conservation management practices for sediment reduction in an Iowa agricultural watershed. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 64 (5), 314-323. jswc.64.5.314.

Zgłobicki, W., Poesen, J., Cohen, M., Del Monte, M., García-Ruiz, J.M., Ionita, I., Niacsu, L., Machová, Z., Martín-Duque, J.F., Nadal-Romero, E., Pica, A., Rey, F., Solé-Benet, A., Stankoviansky, M., Stolz, C., Torri, D., Soms, J., Vergari, F. 2017. The Potential of Permanent Gullies in Europe as Geomorphosites. Geoheritage.




How to Cite

Romero-Díaz A, Díaz-Pereira E, De Vente J. Ecosystem services provision by gully control. A review. CIG [Internet]. 2019 Jun. 18 [cited 2023 Feb. 2];45(1):333-66. Available from: