Little Ice Age, Palaeofloods and human adaptation on the Jarama River (Tajo Basin, Central Spain) from documentary proxy data

T. Bullón

Abstract


This research assesses the close relationship between river history and human adaptation by combining the study of the migration of channels on the floodplain, the temporal distribution of floods, and human adaptation to the fluvial environment during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period on the Jarama River section situated between the mouths of two tributaries, the Henares and Manzanares. The methodology consists of the employment of abundant documentary records from the 14th to 19th centuries related to the response of society to hydrological dynamics within changing river patterns. The management and delimitation of land ownership, along with the readjustments and modifications therein, allow the inference of the changes that have taken place in the river throughout history. These changes include meander cut-offs, the abandonment of a channel fragment and aggradation in the alluvial plain, all of them located in different areas within the study area and with different historical timeframes. A relationship exists between changes in fluvial dynamics and the times of the greater abundance of floods. An initial change in the alluvial plain occurred in the Middle Ages as a result of the abandonment of the medieval channel and the creation of a new channel. The second change occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries and affected the properties on the right-hand bank of the river. Since the 18th century, the abandonment of and reduction in meanders and the aggradation at the Manzanares-Jarama mouth have created a new alluvial plain of the river. The different phases of the LIA defined herein coincide with much of the palynological and dendrochronological research conducted in other areas of the southwestern fringe of Europe. From the historical point of view, critical changes appear to be associated with some LIA phases. Furthermore, the progressive transformation of communal lands into public or private property could be promoted by the intense floods recorded since the 15th century. The Maunder and Dalton Minimums occurred together with an increase in the area assigned for agriculture on the alluvial plain; this land use type continued to grow during the 19th and 20th centuries.


Keywords


Fluvial evolution; Little Ice Age; documentary proxy data; Jarama basin; central Spain

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alvar, A., García, E., Prieto, T., Zofío, J C. 2005. Clima, técnica y poderes. Madrid 1561-1598. Revista de Historia Moderna 23, 135-184. http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/14828/1/RHM_23_06.pdf.

Arche, A. 2009. Coarse-grained meander lobe deposits in the Jarama River, Madrid, Spain. In: D.G. Collinson, J. Lewin (Eds.), Modern and ancient fluvial Systems. Willey on line library. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444303773.ch25.

Arroyo Illera, F. 2002. Orígenes y antecedentes de la Real Acequia del Jarama. Estudios Geográficos 63 (248-249), 409-442. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeogr.2002.i248-249.233.

Barreiro-Lostres. F., Moreno, A., González-Sampériz, P., Giralt, S., Nadal-Romero, E., Valero-Garcés, B. 2017. Erosion in Mediterranean mountain landscapes during the last millennium: a quantitative approach based on lake sediment sequences (Iberian Range, Spain). Catena 149, 782-798. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.05.024.

Barriendos, M., Llasat, M.C. 2003. The case of “Maldá” anomaly in the western Mediterranean Basin (AD 1760-1800): An example of a strong climatic variability. Climatic Change 61, 191-216. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026327613698.

Barriendos, M., Rodrigo, F. 2006. Study of historical flood events on Spanish rivers using documentary data. Hydrological Sciences Journal 51 (5), 765-783. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.51.5.765.

Barriendos, M., Coeur, D. 2004 Flood data reconstruction in historical times from non instrumental sources in Spain and France. In: G. Benito, V.R. Thorndycraft (Eds.), Systematic palaeoflood and historical data for the improvement of flood risk estimation. Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, pp 29-42.

Bastos, A., Janssens, I.A., Gouveia, C.M., Trigo, R.M., Ciais, P. Chevalier, F., Peñuelas, J., Rödenberg, C., Piao, S., Friedlingstein, P, Running, S.W. 2016. European land CO2 sink influenced by NAO and East-Atlantic Pattern coupling. Nature Communications 7, 10315. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10315.

Benito, G., Díez-Herrero, A., Fernández de Villalta, M. 2003. Magnitude and frequency of flooding in the Tagus Basin (Central Spain) over the last millennium. Climatic Change 58, 171-192. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023417102053.

Brázdil, R., Glaser. R., Pfister, C., Dobrovolný, P., Antoine, J., Barriendos, M., Camuffo, D., Deutsch, M., Enzi, S., Guidoboni, E., Kotyza, O., Sanchez Rodrigo F. 1999. Flood events of selected European rivers in the sixteenth century. Climatic Change 43, 239-285. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005550401857.

Brázdil, R., Wheeler, D., Pfister, C. 2010. European climate of the past 500 years based on documentary and instrumental data. Climatic Change 101, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9866x.

Brázdil, R., Kundzewicz, Z W., Benito, G. 2006. Historical hydrology for studying flood risk in Europe. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 51, 739-764. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.51.5.739.

Bullón, T. 2011. Relationships between precipitation and floods in the fluvial basins of Central Spain based on documentary sources from the end of the 16th century. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 11 (8), 2215-2225. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-2215-2011.

Camuffo, D., Bertolin, C., Barriendos, M., Dominguez-Castro, F., Cocheo, C., Enzi, S., Sghedoni, M., Della Valle, A., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M J., Xoplaki, E., Luterbacher, J., Diodato, N., Nunes, M F., Rodriguez, R. 2010. 500-year temperature reconstruction in the Mediterranean Basin by means of documentary data and instrumental observations. Climatic Change 101, 169-199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9815-8.

Corella, J P., Mangili, C., Vegas-Villarrúbia, T., Morellón, M., Rull, V., Valero-Garcés, B., Brauer, A. 2012.The 1.5 ka varved records of Lake Montcortés (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain). Quaternary Research 78, 323-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2012.06.0022012.

Dominguez-Castro, F., Garcia-Herrera, R., Ribera, P., Barriendos, M. 2010. A shift in the spatial pattern of Iberian droughts during the 17th century. Climate of the Past 6, 553-563. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-6-553-2010.

Dominguez-Castro, F., De Miguel, J.C., Vaquero, J.M., García Herrera, R. 2014. Climatic potential of Islamic chronicles in Iberia: Extreme droughts (AD 711-1010). The Holocene 24 (3), 370-374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683613518591.

Fernández, M. 2004. La Tierra de Madrid en la época del Fuero de Madrid (Siglos XII-XIII). In: M. Montero Vallejo (Ed.), Jornadas sobre el Fuero de Madrid. Instituto de Estudios Madrileños, Madrid, pp. 187-215.

Fernández, F., Alloza A., Moreno, F. 2016. La presa del Vado y el Canal del Jarama. Madrid, Fundación Canal.

García-Ruiz, J M., Palacios, D., De Andrés, N., Valero-Garcés, B., López-Moreno, J., Sanjuan, Y. 2014. Holocene and Little Ice Age glacial activity in the Marboré cirque, Monte Perdido massif, Central Spanish Pyrenees. The Holocene 24 (11), 1439-1452. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683614544053.

Glaser, R., Riemann, D., Schönbein, J., Brazdil, R., Camuffo D., Dobrovolny P., Avan, E., Enzi, S., Halichove, M. Koenig, S., Kotyza, O., Limanovka, D., Mackova, J., Sghedoni, M., Martin, B., Himmelbach, I. 2010. The variability of European floods since AD 1500. Climatic Change 101, 235-256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-010-9816-7.

Gómez, A. 1970. Libros de Acuerdos del Concejo Madrileño, 1464-1600, Vol. 2, 1486-1492. Artes Gráficas Madrileñas, Madrid.

Gómez-Ortiz, A., Oliva, M., Salvador-Franch, F., Salvà-Catarineu, M., Plana-Castelví, J A. 2018. El interés geográfico de los documentos históricos en la explicación científica del foco glaciar del Corral del Veleta (Sierra Nevada, España) durante la Pequeña Edad del Hielo. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 44 (1), 267-292. http://doi.org/10.18172/cig.3402.

González-Trueba, J. J., Martin Moreno, R., Martínez de Pisón, E., Serrano, E. 2008. “Little Ice Age” glaciation and current glaciers in the Iberian Peninsula. The Holocene 18, 551-568. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683608089209.

Hernando, F. 2003. El patrimonio municipal de Madrid en el siglo XIII. Unpublished PhD. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Historia Moderna, Madrid.

Llasat, M.C., Barriendos, M., Barrera, A., Rigo, T. 2005. Floods in Catalonia (NE Spain) since the 14th century. Climatological and meteorological aspects from historical documentary sources and old instrumental records. Journal of Hydrology 313 (1/2), 16-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.02.004.

López-Blanco, C., Andrews, J., Dennis, P., Miracle, R., Vicent, E. 2016. Sedimentary response of lake El Tobar, Spain, to climate: lake level changes after the Maunder Minimum. Journal of Quaternary Science 31 (8), 905-918. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.2915.

Luterbacher, J., Koenig, S.J., Franke, J., van der Schrier, G., Zorita, E., Moberg, A., Jacobeit, J., Della-Marta, P.M., Küttel, M., Xoplaki, E., Wheeler, D., Retishauser, T., Stösel, M., Wanner, H., Bradzil, R., Dovrovolny, P., Camuffo, D., Bertolin, C., van Engelen, E., Gonzalez Rouco, F.J., Wilson, E., Pfister, C., Limanovka, D., Nordli, Ø, Leijonhufvud, L., Söderberg, J., Allan, R., Barriendos, M., Glaser, R., Riemann, D., Ha, Z., Zerefos, C.S. 2010. Circulation dynamics and its influence on European and Mediterranean January–April climate over the past half millennium: results and insights from instrumental data, documentary evidence and coupled climate models. Climate Change 101, 201-234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9782-0.

Madrazo, S., Bernardos, J., Hernando, F., de la Hoz, C. 1991. La Tierra de Madrid. In: S. Madrazo, V. Pinto (Eds.) Madrid en la época moderna: Espacio, Sociedad y Cultura, UAM Ediciones y Casa de Velázquez, Madrid, pp. 27-68.

Malalana, A., Martínez, S., Sáez, R. 1995. La ruta del Jarama y su entorno Andalusí. A.C. Almudayna, Madrid.

Manrique, E., Fernández-Cancio, A. 2000. Extreme climatic events in dendroclimatic reconstructions from Spain. Climatic Change 44, 123-138. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005458018568.

Martín Bañón, A. 2007. Espacios domésticos y de almacenaje en las confluencias de los ríos Jarama y Manzanares. In: Estudios sobre la Edad del Hierro en la Carpetania. Zona Arqueológica Vol II 20, pp. 27-41.

Millares, A, Artiles, J. 1932. Libros de Acuerdos del Concejo Madrileño, 1464-1600, Vol. 1, 1464-1485. Ayuntamiento de Madrid, Archivo de Villa, Madrid.

Molina, P, Berrocal, B. 2013. Dinámica fluvial, propiedad de la tierra y conservación del paisaje en el entorno de Aranjuez (Madrid, Toledo). Estudios Geográficos 74 (275), 495-522. https://doi.org/10.3989/estgeogr.201318.

Morellón, M., Pérez-Sanz, A., Corella, J. P, Büntgen, U., Catalán, J., González-Sampériz, P., González-Trueba, J.J., López Sáez, J. A., Moreno, A., Pla-Rabes, S., Saz-Sánchez, M A., Scussolini, P., Serrano. E., Steinilber, F., Stefanova, V., Vegas-Vilarrubia, T., Valero-Garcés, B. 2012. Multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees. Climate of the Past 8, 683-700. http://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-683.

Oliva, M., Ruiz-Fernández, J., Barriendos, M., Benito, G., Cuadrat, J. M., Dominguez-Castro, F., Garcia-Ruiz, J.M., Giralt, S., Gómez-Ortiz, A., Hernández, A., López-Costas, O., López-Moreno, J.I., López-Sáez, J.A., Martínez-Cortizas , A., Moreno, A., Prohom, M., Saz, M.A., Serrano, E., Tejedor, E., Trigo, R., Valero-Garcés, B., Vicente-Serrano, S.M. 2018. The Little Ice Age in Iberian Mountains. Earth-Science Review 177, 175-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.11.010.

Ollero, A., Elso, J. 2006. The need for a “fluvial territory” or “room for the river”. Living with floods by acceptance of their functions. In: C. Baker, P. van Eijk (Eds.), Sustainable flood management: obstacles, challenges and solutions. Interreg IIIC Network FLAPP pp. 59-63.

Panera, J., Torres, T., Pérez-González, A., Ortiz, J. E., Rubio-Jara, S., Uribelarrea del Val, D. 2011. Geocronología de la terraza compleja de Arganda en el valle del río Jarama (Madrid, España). Estudios Geológicos 67 (2), 495-504. http://doi.org/10.3989/egeol405550.204.

Pérez González, A., Gallardo-Millán, J.L., Uribelarrea del Val, D., Panera, J., Rubio-Jara, S. 2012. La inversión Matuyama-Brunhes en la secuencia de terrazas del río Jarama entre Velilla de San Antonio y Altos de Mejorada, al SE de Madrid (España). Estudios Geológicos 69 (1), 35-46. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40862.173.

Ramos-Román, M.J., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Camuera, J., García-Alix, A., Anderson, R. S., Jiménez-Espejo, F.J., Carrión, J.S. 2018. Holocene climate aridification impact interrupted by millennial-and centennial-scale climate fluctuations from a new sedimentary record from Padul (Sierra Nevada, southern Iberian Peninsula). Climate of the Past 14, 117-137. https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-14-117-2018.

Rodrigo, F.S. 2018. A review of the Little Ice Age in Andalusia (Southern Spain): results and research challenges. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 44 (1), 245-265. http://doi.org/10.18172/cig.3316.

Rodrigo, F.S., Barriendos, M. 2008. Reconstruction of seasonal and annual rainfall variability in the Iberian Peninsula (16th-20th centuries) from documentary data. Global Planetary Change 63 (2-3), 243-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.004.

Rodrigo, F.S., Esteban-Parra, M.J., Pozo-Vázquez, D., Castro-Díez, Y. 2000. Rainfall variability in southern Spain on decadal to centennial time scales. International Journal of Climatology 20, 721-732. http://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0088(20000615)20:7<721::AIDJOC520>3.0.CO;2-Q.

Rubio, C. 1979. Libros de Acuerdos del Concejo Madrileño 1464-1600, Vol 3: 1493-1497. Ayuntamiento de Madrid, Archivo de la Villa, Madrid.

Rubio, C., Sánchez, R, Cayetano, C. 1982. Libros de Acuerdos del Concejo Madrileño, 1464-1600. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Archivo de la Villa, Madrid.

Sánchez, G. 1963. El Fuero de Madrid y los derechos locales castellanos. In: El Fuero de Madrid, Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Archivo de la Villa, Madrid.

Sánchez-López, G., Hernández, A., Pla-Rabes, S., Trigo, R.M., Toro, M., Granados, I., Sáez, A.S., Masque, P., Pueyo, J.J., Rubio-Inglés, M.J., Giralt, S. 2016. Climate reconstruction for the last two millennia in central Iberia: the role of East Atlantic (EA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their interplay over the Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 135-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.07.021

Santonja, M., López, N., Pérez-González, A., Querol, A. 1979. Los sitios de ocupación del arenero de áridos S.A. (Arganda, Madrid). I Jornadas de estudios sobre la provincia de Madrid. Diputación Provincial, Madrid, pp. 44-53.

Santonja, M., López, N., Pérez González, A. 1980. Ocupaciones Achelenses en el valle del Jarama. Arganda (Madrid). Diputación Provincial de Madrid.

Sánchez, G., Millares, C., Gómez Iglesias, A., Lapesa, R. 1982. El Fuero de Madrid y los derechos locales castellanos en el Fuero de Madrid. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Archivo de la Villa, Madrid.

Silva, P., Goy, J.L., Zazo C. 1988. Neotectónica del sector centro-meridional de la Cuenca de Madrid. Estudios Geológicos 44, 415-427. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.88445-6558.

Silva, P. 2003. El Cuaternario del valle inferior del Manzanares (Cuenca de Madrid, España). Estudios Geológicos 59, 107-131. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.03591-488.

Steinhilber, F., Beer, J., Fröhlich, C. 2009. Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L19704. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040142.

Till, C., Guiot, J. 1990. Reconstruction of precipitation in Morocco since 1100 A.D. based on Cedrus Atlantica tree-ring withs. Quaternary Research 33, 337-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/0033-5894(90)90060-X.

Trouet, V., Esper, J., Grahan, N.E., Baker, A., Scourse, J. D., Frank, D.C. 2009. Persistent positive Atlantic oscillation mode dominated by the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science, 324 (5923), 78-80. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1166349.

Uribalarrea, D., Pérez González, A., Benito, G. 2003. Channel changes in the Jarama and Tagus rivers (central Spain) over the past 500 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 2209-2221. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-3791(03)00153-7.

Uribelarrea, D., Díez Herrero, A., Benito, G. 2004. Actividad antrópica, crecidas y dinámica fluvial en el sistema Jarama-Tajo. Itinerarios geomorfológicos por Castilla-La Mancha. (Excursiones de la VIII Reunión Nacional de Geomorfología, Toledo, 22-25 de septiembre de 2004), CSIC y SEG, Madrid.

Vizcaíno, P., Magdaleno, F., Seves, A., Merino. M., González Tánago, M., García de Jalón. D. 2003. Los cambios geomorfológicos del rio Jarama como base para su restauración. Limnetica 22 (3-4), 1-8. http://www.limnetica.net/Limnetica/Limne22/L22b001_Cambios_geomorfologicos_rio_Jarama.pdf.

Wolf, D., Seim, A., Díaz del Olmo, F., Faust, D. 2013. Late Quaternary fluvial dynamics of the Jarama River in central Spain. Quaternary International 302, 20-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.02.012.

Wolf, D., Faust, D. 2016. River braiding caused by rapid floodplain deformation. Insights from Holocene dynamics of the Jarama River in Central Spain. Quaternary International 407, 126-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.01.027.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18172/cig.4276

Copyright (c) 2020 T. Bullón

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540