The flood of October 9, 2018 in the city centre of Sant Llorenç des Cardassar (Mallorca)

Miquel Grimalt-Gelabert, Joan Bauzá-Llinás, María C. Genovart-Rapado

Abstract


Since the 1940s, the city centre of Sant Llorenç des Cardassar has suffered from several flooding episodes from the several tributaries of ca n’Amer creek. Five lives lost and a significant impact on the population were the result of the most relevant flood in the series that occurred in 2018. In this paper, an analysis of the historical relationship of the village with floods, the answer provided by the administration to those floods, and the geographic setting and the anthropic actions on the land are considered. Using the data collected by direct observation, witnesses, and graphs and fieldwork, a thorough investigation of the volume, flow, direction and levels of water has been developed. This translates into an exhaustive mapping of the event, discriminating the hydraulic behaviour in each of the affected roads and showing the sequential development of the flood. Flooding is a combination of severe stream flows, avulsion processes and angular sections that combine with infraestructures that interfere with the flow direction and prevent its reintegration into the main channel and where the streets become active channels.


Keywords


Natural Hazards; Geography of risk; Mallorca; Sant Llorenç; Flash flood; Urban floods

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arranz, M. 2008. El riesgo de inundaciones y la vulnerabilidad en áreas urbanas. Análisis de casos en España. Estudios Geográficos, LXIX, 265, pp. 385-416. https://doi.org/10.3989/estgeogr.0417

Bačová Mitková, V., Pekárová, P., Halmová, D. Miklánek, P. 2018. Reconstruction and post-event analysis of a flash flood in a small ungauged basin: a case study in Slovak territory. Nat Hazards 92, 741–760. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-018-3222-2

Costa, J.E. 1983. Paleohydraulic reconstruction of flash-flood peaks from boulder deposits in rhe Colorado Front Range. Geological Society of America Bulletin 94, 986-1004

Cortès, J. (coord.) 2019. Sa torrentada. Sant Llorenç des Cardassar. 9 octubre de 2019. Ajuntament de Sant Llorenç des Cardassar. Associació cultural Flor de Card. Palma. 478 pp.

Dalrymple, T., Benson, M.A. 1989. Measurement of Peak Discharge by the Slope-area Method. US Geological Survey.

Doswell, C.A. III, Brooks, H.E., Maddox R.A. 1996. Flash Flood Forecasting: An Ingredient-Based Methodology. Weather and Forecasting, 11, 560–581. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1996)011<0560:FFFAIB>2.0.CO;2

Estrany, J., Grimalt, M. 2014. Catchment controls and human disturbances on the geomorphology of small Mediterranean estuaries systems. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 150B, 230-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.03.021

Grimalt, M. 1992. Geografia del risc a Mallorca. Les inundacions. Institut d’Estudis Baleàrics-CSIC. Palma. 374 pp.

Grimalt, M., Rodríguez, A. 1990. Caudales-punta de avenida y morfología de cuencas en Mallorca. In M. Gutiérrez, J.L. Peña, M.V. Lozano (Eds.), Actas I Reunión Nacional de Geomorfología. Sociedad Española de Geomorfología. Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, Teruel, 2, pp. 427-436.

Grimalt, M., Rosselló Geli, J. 2011. Anàlisi històrica de les inundacions a les Illes Balears segons la guia metodològica del Ministerio d’Agricultura, Alimentació i Medi Ambient. Conselleria d’Agricultura, Medi Ambient i Territori del Govern de les Illes Balears. 442 pp + Atlas.

Grimalt, M., Genovart, M.C. 2014. Caracterización espacio-temporal de las precipitaciones intensas en la vertiente litoral oriental de la isla de Mallorca (1930-2010). In: S. Fernández-Montes, F.S. Rodrigo (Eds). Cambio Climático y cambio global. Asociación Española de Climatología. pp. 447-457.

Grimalt, M., Rodríguez, A., Rodríguez, R. 1990. Morfometría de cuencas en la vertiente sudoriental de Mallorca. In O. Rullan, J.M. Seguí (Eds.). IV Coloquio de Geografía Cuantitativa. Los sistemas de información geográficos y la toma de decisiones territoriales. Universitat de les Illes Balears. AGE, Palma, pp. 355-374.

Grimalt, M., Bauzà, J., Genovart, M.C. 2019a. Anàlisi de la torrentada del 9 d’octubre de 2018 al nucli urbà de Sant Llorenç: cabals, processos, interferències i propostes d’actuació. Estudio técnico. UIB. Grup de recerca de Climatologia, Hidrologia, Riscs Naturals i Territori. Ajuntament de Sant Llorenç des Cardassar. 49 pp.

Grimalt, M., Bauzà, J., Genovart, M.C. 2019b. La torrentada de 9 d’octubre de 2018 al terme de Sant Llorenç, una visió geogràfica. In: J. Cortès (coord.). Sa torrentada. Sant Llorenç des Cardassar. 9 octubre de 2019. Ajuntament de Sant Llorenç des Cardassar. Associació cultural Flor de Card. Palma. pp. 13-54.

Grimalt, M., Rodríguez, A., Rodríguez, R., Servera, J., Fornós, J. 1992. Procesos de colmatación en una albufera litoral (cala Magraner, Mallorca). In: F. López, C. Conesa, M. A. Romero (Edrs.). Estudios de geomorfologia en España: Actas de la II Reunión Nacional de Geomorfología. Murcia. pp. 529-536.

Grimalt-Gelabert, M., Rosselló-Geli, J., Bauzà-Llinàs. 2020. Flood related mortality in a touristic island: Mallorca (Balearic Islands) 1960-2018. Journal of Flood Risk Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12644

López, A., Mayer, P., Pacheco, J., Dorta, P. 2019. Rainfall and Flooding in Coastal Tourist Areas of the Canary Islands (Spain). Atmosphere 10 (12), 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120809

Llasat, M.C., Llasat-Botija, M., Petrucci, O., Pasqua, A. A., Rosselló, J., Vinet, F., Boissier, L. 2013. Towards a database on societal impact of Mediterranean floods in the framework of the HYMEX project. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 13, 1337-1350. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-1337-2013

Macchione, F., Costabile, P., Costanzo, C., De Lorenzo, G. 2019. Extracting quantitative data from non-conventional information for the hydraulic reconstruction of past urban flood events. A case study. Journal of Hydrology 576, 443-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.06.031

Portugués-Mollá, I., Bonache-Felici, X., Mateu-Bellés, J.F., Marco-Segura, J.B. 2016. A GIS-Based Model for the analysis of an urban flash flood and its hydro-geomorphic response. The Valencia event of 1957. Journal of Hydrology, 541A, 582-596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.048

Rico, M., Benito, G. 2002. Estimación de caudales de crecida en pequeñas cuencas de montaña: revisión metodológica y aplicación a la cuenca de Montardit (Pirineos Centrales, España). Cuaternario y Geomorfología 15, 125-138.

Riggs, H.C. 1976. A simplified slope-area method for estimating flood discharges in channels. Journal of Research of the US Geological Survey 4, 285-291.

Romero, A., Castejón, G. 2014. Inundaciones en la Región de Murcia en los inicios del siglo XXI. Biblio3W. Vol XIX, 41 pp.

Rosselló, V. M. 1964. Mallorca. El Sur y Sureste. Cámara Oficial de Comercio Industria y Navegación de Palma de Mallorca. Palma, 553 pp.

Segura-Beltran, F., Sanchis-Ibor, C., Morales-Hernández, M., González-Sanchis, M., Bussi, G., Ortiz, E. 2016 Using post-flood surveys and geomorphologic mapping to evaluate hydrological and hydraulic models: The flash flood of the Girona River (Spain) in 2007. Journal of Hydrology 541A, 310-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.04.039




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18172/cig.4858

Copyright (c) 2021 Miquel Grimalt-Gelabert, Joan Bauzá-Llinás, María C. Genovart-Rapado

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540