Geomorphology and landforms distribution in selected ice-free areas in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Northern Peninsula region

J. López-Martínez, T. Schmid, E. Serrano, S. Mink, A. Nieto, S. Guillaso

Abstract


Ice-free areas cover a small percentage of the land in the South Shetland Islands. However, they are significant as they contain ecosystems highly sensitive to environmental changes and are located within a region affected by global warming. These areas are dominated by periglacial, glacial, fluvial, and coastal processes and landforms, where permafrost is often present. Soil development is observed although vegetation cover is sparse and closely related to the geomorphology. The mapping and monitoring of ice-free areas is important as they are highly sensitive to climate change. The objective of this study was to characterize and map surface landforms in ice-free areas using traditional mapping methods as well as advanced remote sensing techniques. Geomorphological and topographical maps were initially obtained through field measurements and observations, and complemented with existing aerial photography at scales between 1:2000 and 1:25000. Thereafter, satellite-borne data became available and were included in the methodology to further determine the distribution of the landforms. In the Antarctic environment, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides the most reliable images as data can be obtained in any weather conditions as well as during the day and night. Fully polarimetric SAR RADARSAT-2 were used to determine seven different terrain classes representing surface landforms in ice-free areas around Maxwell Bay (King George Island). The SAR remote sensing techniques were successfully applied to identify different periglacial, fluvial, glacial, coastal, as well as lithological landforms. Field data from Fildes Peninsula were used to train a supervised classifier to map further areas around Maxwell Bay. In this case, the ice-free areas around Maxwell Bay clearly show the dominance of periglacial landforms and processes. Therefore, these techniques can be used to compare past and future results and to monitor areas affected by changing environmental factors and increasing human activities.


Keywords


glacial, periglacial, coastal, geomorphological mapping, remote sensing, Antarctica

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arche, A., López-Martínez, J., Serrano. E., Martínez de Pisón, E. 1996. Marine landforms and deposits. In J. López-Martínez, M.R.A. Thomson, J.W. Thomson (eds.), Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, BAS Geomap Series, 5-A, 35-42, Cambridge, British Antarctic Survey.

Balks, M.R., López-Martínez, J., Goryachkin, S., Mergelov, N., Schaefer, C., Simas, F., Almond, P., Claridge, G.C.G., Mcleod, M., Scarrow, J. 2013. Windows on Antarctic soil landscape relationships: comparison across selected regions of Antarctica. In M.J. Hambrey, P.F. Barker, P.J. Barrett, V. Bowman, B. Davies, J.L. Smellie, M. Tranter (eds.), Antarctic Palaeoenvironments and Earth-Surface Processes, Geological Society, Special Publications, London, pp. 397-410.

Bañón, M. 1992. El clima en las Shetland del Sur y el norte de la Península Antártica. Caso de la B.A.E. Juan Carlos I. La Meteorología II 7-8, 38-45.

Bañón, M., Justel, A., Velázquez, D., Quesada, A. 2013. Regional weather survey on Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 25, 146-156.

Barker, P.F., Dalziel, I.W.D., Storey, B.C. 1991. Tectonic development of the Scotia Arc region. In R.J. Tingey (ed.), Antarctic Geology, Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK, pp. 215-248.

Baroni, C., Bruschi, G., López-Martínez, J. 1997. Review of Antarctic Geomorphological Mapping. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 20, 15-31.

Barsch, D., Blümel, W.D., Flügel, W.A., Mäusbacher, R., Stäblein, G., Zick, W. 1985. UntersuchungenzumPeriglazial auf der König-Georg-Insel Süd Shetland Inseln/Antarktika. Deutsche physiogeographische Forschungen in der Antarktis. Berichtüber die Kampagne 1983/84. Reports on Polar Research, nº 24. Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Bello, S., Bidegain, M., Lobato, H. 1996. Características Climatológicas de la Bahía Collins, Isla Rey Jorge, Antártida. Dirección General de Meteorología del Uruguay, Montevideo, 35 pp.

Bergamín, J.F., Durán, J.J., González Casado, J.M., López-Martínez, J. 1997. Morfología y estructura del basamento precuaternario de la Caleta Española, Península Hurd, Isla Livingston. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Sección Geológica) 93 (1-4), 187-194.

Berkman, P.A., Andrews, J.T., Björck, S., Colhoun, E.A., Emslie, S.D., Goodwin, I.D., Hall, B.L., Hart, C.P., Hirakawa, K., Hjort, C., Igarashi, A., Ingólfsson, O., López-Martínez, J., Lyons, W.B., Mabin, M.C.G., Quilty, P.G., Taviani, M., Yoshida, Y. 1998. Circum-Antarctic coastal environmental shifts during the Late Quaternary reflected by emerged marine deposits. Antarctic Science 10 (3), 345-362.

Blümel, W.D., Eitel, B. 1989. Geoecological aspects of maritime-climatic and continental periglacial regions in Antarctica (S-Shetland, Antarctic Peninsula and Victoria Land). Geoökodynamic 10, 201-214.

Bockheim, J.G., Vieira, G., Ramos, M., López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Guglielmin, M., Wihelm, K., Nieuwendam, A. 2013. Climate Warming and Permafrost Dynamics on the Antarctic Peninsula Region. Global and Planetary Change 100, 215-223.

Bruschi, G., López-Martínez, J., Baroni, C. 1997. Los mapas geomorfológicos de la Antártida. Análisis comparativo. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Secc. Geol.) 93 (1-4), 195-203.

Campbell, I.B., Claridge, G.G.C. 1987. Antarctica: Soils, weathering processes and environment. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Cannone, N., Guglielmin, M. 2010. Relationships between periglacial features and vegetation development in Victoria Land, continental Antarctica. Antarctic Science 22 (6), 703-713.

CGE-UAM-UFRJ. Centro Geográfico del Ejército, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro 2005. Isla Elefante / Elephant Island, Antártida. Mapa E. 1:50.000. Serie Cartografía Antártica. Centro Geográfico del Ejército, Madrid.

Cook, A.J., Fox, A.J., Vaughan, D.G., Ferrigno, J.G. 2005. Retreating Glacier Fronts on the Antarctic Peninsula over the Past Half-Century. Science 308, 541-544.

Cui, Z., Youyu, X., Gengnian, L. 1989. Antarctic periglacial environment and the formation mechanism of “sorted circles” in the Península Fildes. Proccedings International Symposium on Antarctic Research, Chinese Committee on Antarctic Research, Chinese Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 82-90.

Chen, J., Blume, H.P. 1999. Study on the Dynamics of Soil Moisture in an Ice-Free Area of the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, the Maritime Antarctic. Polarforschung 66, 11-18.

Chen, J., Zitong, G., Blume, H.P. 2000. Soils of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, the maritime Antarctic. Part 1, formation processes and pedogenetic particularities. Chinese Journal of Polar Science 11 (1), 25-38.

D’Hondt, O., Guillaso, S., Hellwich, O. 2013. Iterative bilateral filtering of polarimetric SAR data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 6, 1628-1639.

Dimitriadou, E., Hornik, K., Leisch, F., Meyer, D., Weingesse, A. 2005. E1071: Misc Functions of the Department of Statistics (e1071), TU Wien, Version 1.5-11. Available at: http://cran.r-project.org/ (last access: 18/02/2016).

Engeset, R.V., Weydahl, D.J. 1998. Analysis of glaciers and geomorphology on Svalbard using multitemporal ERS-1 SAR images. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36 (6), 1879-1887.

Foody, G.M., Mathur, A. 2004a. A relative evaluation of multiclass image classification by support vector machines. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 42, 1336-1343.

Foody, G., Mathur, A. 2004b. Toward intelligent training of supervised image classifications: directing training data acquisition for SVM classification. Remote Sensing Environment 93 (1), 107-117.

Francelino, M.R., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Simas, F.N.B., Filho, E.I.F., de Souza, J.J.L.L., Costa, L.M. 2011. Geomorphology and soils distribution under paraglacial conditions in an ice-free area of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Catena 85, 194-204.

González-Casado, J.M., Giner, J., López-Martínez, J. 2000. Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula: not a normal back arc basin. Geology 28 (11), 1043-1046.

Guglielmin, M., DalleFratte, M., Cannone, N. 2014.Permafrost warming and vegetation changes in continental Antarctica. Environmental Research Letters 9, 045001, 14 pp.

Guillaso, S., Schmid, T., López-Martínez, J., D’Hondt, O. 2015. Application of a new polarimetric filter to RADARSAT-2 data of Deception Island (Antarctic Peninsula region) for surface cover characterization. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences-ISPRS Archives Vol. XL-7/W3, 1035-1039.

Hall, B.L. 2009. Holocene glaciar history of Antarctica and sub-Antarctic Islands. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 2213-2230.

Hall, B.L. 2010. Holocene relative sea-level changes and ice fluctuations in the South Shetland Islands. Global and Planetary Change 74, 15-26.

Hall, K. 1992a. Mechanical weathering on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. In Y. Yoshida, K. Kaminuma, K. Shiraishi (eds.), Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science, Terrapub, Tokyo, pp. 757-762.

Hall, K. 1992b. Mechanical weathering in the Antarctic. In J.C. Dixon, A.D. Abrahams (eds.), Periglacial Geomorphology, Wiley, Chichester, 103-123.

Hall, K. 1993. Enhanced bedrock weathering in association with late-lying snow patches: evidence from Livingston Island, Antarctica. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 18, 121-129.

Hsu, C.W., Chang, C.C., Lin, C.J. 2010. A practical guide to support vector classification. Department of Computer Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 106. Available at: http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~cjlin/libsvm (last access: 18/02/2016).

Jeong, G.Y. 2006. Radiocarbon ages of sorted circles on King George Island, South Shetland Island, West Antarctica. Antarctic Science 18 (2), 265-270.

Jezek, K.C. 1999. Glaciological properties of the Antarctic ice sheet from RADARSAT 1 synthetic aperture radar imagery. Annals of Glaciology 29, 286-290.

Jezek, K.C., Farness, K., Carande, R., Wu, X., Labelle-Hamer, N. 2003. RADARSAT 1 synthetic aperture radar observations of Antarctica: Modified Antarctic mapping mission, 2000. Radio Science 38 (4), 8067, M.32, 1-7.

John, B., Sugden, D.E. 1971. Raised marine features and phases of glaciation in the South Shetland Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 24, 45-111.

John, B.S., Sudgen, D.E. 1973. Raised marine features and phases of glaciation in the South Shetland Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 24, 45-111.

King, J.C., Turner, J. 1997. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

King, J.C., Comiso, J.C. 2003. The spatial coherence of Interannual temperature variations in the Antarctic Peninsula. Geophysics Research Letters 30 (2), 1040-1041.

Koch, M., López-Martínez, J., Schmid, T., Serrano, E., Gumuzzio, J. 2008. Application of ALOS PALSAR for the study of periglacial features related to permafrost within the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Boston, USA. IEEE Vol. 4, pp. 343-346.

Koch, M., López-Martínez, J., Schmid, T., Serrano, E., Gumuzzio, J. 2009. Evaluating the use of ALOS data (microwave and optical) for mapping geomorphological features of selected areas in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands (West Antarctica). ESA SP-664. Proceedings of ALOS PI 2008 Symposium, Rhodes, Greece, pp. 1-4.

Lee, J.S., Pottier, E. 2009. Polarimetric radar imaging: from basics to applications. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E. 2002. Geomorphology of Deception Island. In J. López-Martínez, J.L. Smellie, J.W. Thomson, M.R.A. Thomson (eds.), Geology and Geomorphology of Deception Island, BAS Geomap Series, Sheets 6-A and 6-B, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, pp. 31-39.

López-Martínez, J., Martínez de Pisón, E., Arche, A. 1992. Geomorphology of Hurd Peninsula. In Y. Yoshida, S. Kaminuma, Y. Shiraishi (eds.), Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science, Terrapub, Tokyo, pp. 751-756.

López-Martínez, J., Martínez de Pisón, E., Serrano, E., Arche, A. 1995. Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island. BAS Geomap Series, Sheet 5-A, 1:25,000, 1996, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Martínez de Pisón, E. 1996. Geomorphological features of the drainage system. In J. López-Martínez, M.R.A. Thomson, J.W. Thomson (eds.), Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, BAS Geomap Series, 5-A, 15-19, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Rey, J., Smellie, J.L. 2000. Geomorphological Map of Deception Island. BAS Geomap Series, Sheets 6-B, E. 1/25,000, 2002, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E. 2002. Geomorphology of Deception Island. In J. López-Martínez, J.L. Smellie, J.W. Thomson, M.R.A. Thomson, M.R.A. (eds.), Geology and Geomorphology of Deception Island, BAS Geomap Series, Sheets 6-A and 6-B, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, pp. 31-39.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Lee, J.I. 2002. Geomorphological Map of Barton and Weaver Peninsulas, King George Island, Antarctica. Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul.

López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Schmid, T., Mink, S., Linés, C. 2012. Periglacial processes and landforms in the South Shetland Islands (Northern Antarctic Peninsula region). Geomorphology 155-156, 62-79.

López-Martínez, J., Smellie, J.L., Thomson, J.W., Thomson, M.R.A. (eds.) 2002. Geology and Geomorphology of Deception Island. BAS Geomap Series, Sheets 6-A and 6-B, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 77 pp. + 3 maps.

López-Martínez, J., Thomson, M.R.A., Thomson, J.W. (eds.) 1996. Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island. BAS Geomap Series, 5-A, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 65 pp. + 2 maps.

Magagi, R., Bernier, M. 2003. Optimal conditions for wet snow detection using RADARSAT SAR data. Remote Sensing of Environment 84, 221-233.

Martínez de Pisón, E., López-Martínez, J., Arche, A. 1991. Formas y depósitos de la zona de Johnsons Dock. Mapa geomorfológico. Isla Livingston, Shetland del Sur, Antártida. Ería 23, 39-43.

Martínez de Pisón, E., Serrano, E., Arche, A., López-Martínez, J. 1996. Glacial geomorphology. In J. López-Martínez, M.R.A. Thomson, J.W. Thomson (eds.), Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island. BAS Geomap Series, 5-A, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, pp. 23-27.

Michalchuck, B.R., Anderson, J.B., Wellner, J.S., Manley, P.L., Majewski, W., Bohaty, S. 2009. Holocene climate and glacial history of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula: the marine sedimentary record from a long SHALDRIL core. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 3049-3065.

Michel, R.F.M., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Dias, L.E., Simas, F.N.B., Melo Benites, V., Sá Mendonça, E. 2006. Ornithogenic gelisols (Cryosols) from Maritime Antarctica. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70, 1370.

Michel, R.F.M., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Poelking, E.L., Simas, F.N.B., Fernandes, E.I., Bockheim, J.G. 2012. Active layer temperature in two Cryosols from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Geomorphology 155-156, 12-19.

Michel, R.F.M., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., López-Martínez, J., Simas, F.N.B., Haus, N.W., Serrano, E., Bockheim, J.G. 2014. Soils and landforms from Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island, Maritime Antarctica. Geomorphology 225, 76-86.

Milliken, K.T., Anderson, J.B., Wellner, J.S., Bohaty, S.M., Manley, P.L. 2009. High resolution Holocene climate record from Maxwell Bay, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1711-1725.

Mink, S., López-Martínez, J., Maestro, A., Garrote, J., Ortega, J.A., Serrano, E., Durán, J.J., Schmid, T. 2014. Insights into deglaciation of the largest ice-free area in the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica) from quantitative analysis of the drainage system. Geomorphology, 225, 4-24.

Mink, S., Maestro, A., J. López-Martínez, J., Schmid, T., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Trouw, R.A.J. 2015. Morphostructural analysis and Cenozoic evolution of Elephant Island, Southern Scotia Arc, Antarctica. International Journal of Earth Sciences 104, 833-851.

Mora, C., Vieira, G., Ramos, M. 2013. Evaluation of Envisat ASAR IMP imagery for snow mapping at varying spatial resolution (Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica). In Antarctic Palaeoenvironments and Earth Surface Processes, GSL Special Publication 381, Geological Society of London, London, pp. 481-493.

Moura, P.A., Francelino, M.R., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Simas, F.N.B., Mendonça, B.A.F. 2012. Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica. Geomorphology 155-156, 45-54.

Navas, A., López-Martínez, J., Casas, J., Machín, J., Serrano, E., Durán, J.J., Cuchí, J.A. 2006. Soil characteristics along a transect on raised marine surfaces on Byers Peninsula, South Shetland Islands. In D.K. Fütterer, D. Damaske, G. Kleinschmidt, H. Müller, F. Tessensohn (eds.), Antarctica. Contributions to Global Earth Sciences, Springer, Berlin, pp. 467-474.

Navas, A., López-Martínez, J., Casas, J., Machín, J., Durán, J.J., Serrano, E., Cuchí, J.A., Mink, S. 2008. Soil characteristics on varying lithological substrates in the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica. Geoderma 144, 123-139.

Oliva, M., Ruiz-Fernández, J. 2015. Coupling patterns between paraglacial and permafrost degradation responses in Antarctica. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Doi: 10.1002/esp.3716.

Oliva, M., Ruiz-Fernández, J. 2016. Geomorphological processes and frozen ground conditions in Elephant Point (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Geomorphology. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.01.020.

Pereira, A.B., Putzke, J. 2013. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 85 (3), 923-935.

Pottier, E. 2010. Recent advances in the development of the open source toolbox for polarimetric and interferometric polarimetric SAR data processing: the PolSARpro v4.1.5 software. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), IEEE, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 2527-2530.

Qingsong, Z. 1989. A comparison of periglacial landforms between the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica and the Fildes Península of King George Island, west Antarctica. Proccedings International Symposium on Antarctic Research, Chinese Committee on Antarctic Research, Chinean Ocean Press, Beijing, 74-81.

R Development Core Team 2004. A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available at: http: //www.R-project.org/

Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. (ed.) 1993. The Maritime Antarctic Coastal Ecosystem of Admiralty Bay. Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 216 pp.

Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. 2002. King George Island-South Shetland Island, Maritime Antarctic. In L. Beyer, M. Bölter (eds.), Geoecology of Antarctic Ice Free Coastal Landscapes, Springer Verlag, Berlín, pp. 23-40.

Rasmussen, E.A., Turner, J. 2003. Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the Polar Regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 624 pp.

S1TBX 2014. Sentinel-1 Toolbox. Array Systems Computing Inc. and contributers. Available at: https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/toolboxes/sentinel-1 (last access: 18/02/2016).

Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Simas, F.N.B., Gilkes, R.J., Mathison, C., Costa, L.M. 2007. Micromorphology and microchemistry of Cryosols from Maritime Antarctica. Geoderma 144, 104-115.

Schmid, T., López-Martínez, J., Koch, M., Maestro, A., Serrano, E., Linés, C. 2012. Geomorphological mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula region applying single and multipolarization RADARSAT-2 data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 38 (3), 367-382.

Schmid, T., López-Martínez, J., Guillaso, S., D'Hondt, O., Koch, M., Mink, S., Nieto, A., Serrano, E. 2015. Distribution of glacial and periglacial features within ice-free areas surrounding Maxwell Bay (South Shetland Islands) using polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data. IGARSS IEEE International, pp. 3458-3461.

Schwerdtfeger, W. 1970. The climate of Antarctica. In H.E. Landsberg (ed.), World Survey of Climatology, Orvig Editor, Amsterdam, pp. 253-355.

Serrano, E., Martínez de Pisón, E., López-Martínez, J. 1996. Periglacial and nival landforms and deposits. In J. López-Martínez, M.R.A. Thomson, J.W. Thomson (eds.), Geomorphological Map of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Bas Geomap Series, Sheet 5-A, 1:25,000, with Supplementary Text, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, pp. 28-34.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 1997a. Geomorfología de la Península Coppermine, Isla Robert, Islas Shetland del Sur. Serie Científica INACH 47, 19-29.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 1997b. Evolución de las formas del relieve y los depósitos superficiales cuaternarios en la Isla Media Luna, Islas Shetland del Sur. Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Sección Geológica) 93 (1-4), 205-216.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 1998. Caracterización y distribución de las formas y los procesos periglaciares en las Islas Shetland del Sur, Antártida. In A. Gómez, F. Salvador, L. Schulte, A. García, (eds.), Procesos biofísicos actuales en medios fríos, Publicaciones de la Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, pp. 181-204.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 2000. Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica. Geomorphology 35, 145-162.

Serrano, E., Giner, J., Gumiel, P., López-Martínez, J. 2002a. Morfodinámica de laderas en las Islas Shetland del Sur, Antártida Marítima. In E. Serrano, A. García (eds.), Periglaciarismo en montaña y altas latitudes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, pp. 231-255.

Serrano, E., Giner, J., Gumiel, P., López-Martínez, J. 2002b. Permafrost en las Islas Shetland del Sur (Antártida Marítima). Distribución y dinámica actual. In E. Serrano, A. García (eds.), Periglaciarismo en montaña y altas latitudes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, pp. 277-296.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 2004. Morfogénesis periglaciar y deglaciación en las penínsulas Barton y Weaver (islas Shetland del Sur, Antártida). Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural (Sección Geológica), 99 (1-4), 131-140.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J., Cuchí, J.A., Durán, J.J., Mink, S., Navas, A. 2008. Permafrost in the South Shetland Islands (Maritime Antarctica): spatial distribution pattern. In D.L. Kane, K.M. Hindel (eds.), Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, pp. 1621-1625.

Serrano, E., López-Martínez, J. 2012. Geomorphological Mapping in Antarctic Periglacial Environment. The Geomorphological Map of Fildes Península (King George Island, South Shetlands Archipelago). Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Permafrost, Volume 4, IPA-Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, Tyumen, Russia, pp. 521-518.

SGE-UAM, Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 1993. Isla Decepción/Deception Island, Antártida. Mapa E. 1:25,000, Serie Cartografía Antártica, Madrid, Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, Madrid.

SGE-UAM-BAS, Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, British Antarctic Survey 1992. Mapa Topográfico E. 1:25,000, Península Byers/ByersPeninsula, Isla Livingston, Antártida. Serie Cartografía Antártica, Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, Madrid.

Simas, F.N.B., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Melo, V.F., Guerra, M.B.B., Saunders, M., Gilkes, R.J. 2006. Clay-sized minerals in permafrost-affected soils (Cryosols) from King George Island, Antarctica. Clays and Clay Mineralogy 54, 721-736.

Simas, F.N.B., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Melo, V.F., Albuquerque-Filho, M.R., Michel, R.F.M., Pereira, V.V., Gomes, M.R.M., Da Costa, L.M. 2007. OrnithogenicCryosols from Maritime Antarctica: phosphatization as a soil forming process. Geoderma 138, 191-203.

Simas, F.N.B., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Albuquerque-Filho, M.R., Francelino, M.R., Fernades-Filho, E.I., Da Costa, L.M. 2008. Genesis, properties and classification of Cryosols from Admiralty Bay, Maritime Antarctica. Geoderma 144, 116-122.

Simas, F.N.B., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., Michel, R.F.M., Francelino, M.R., Bockheim, J.G. 2015. Soils of the South Orkney and South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. In J.G. Bockheim (ed.), The Soils of Antarctica, Springer, Berlin, pp. 227-273.

Simms, A.R., Milliken, K,T. Anderson, J.B., Wellner, J. 2011. The marine record of deglaciation of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica since the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 13-14.

Simonov, I.M. 1977. Physical-geographic description of the Fildes Peninsula (South Shetland Islands). Polar Geography 1, 223-242.

Smellie, J.L., Pankhurst, R.J., Thomsom, M.R.A., Davies, R.E.S. 1984. The Geology of the South Shetland Island. VI. Stratigraphy, Geochemistry and Evolution. British Antarctic Survey Scientific Reports, No. 87. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 85 pp.

Sugden, D.E., John, B.S. 1973. The ages of glacier fluctuations in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. In E.M. van Zinderen Bakker (ed.), Paleoecology of Africa, the surrounding islands and Antarctica, A.A. Balkema, Cape Town, pp. 141-159.

Tin, T., Liggett, D., Maher, P.T., Lamers, M. 2014. Antarctic Futures. Human Engagement with the Antarctic Environment. Springer.

Toro, M., Granados, I., Pla, S., Giralt, S., Antoniades, D., Galán, L., Martínez-Cortizas, A., Lim, H.S., Appleby, P.G. 2013. Chronostratigraphy of the sedimentary record of Limnopolar Lake, Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 25, 198-212.

Turner, J., Colwell, S.R., Marshall, G.J., Lachlan-Cope, T.A., Carleton, A.M., Jones, P.D., Lagun, V., Reid, P.A., Iagovkina, S. 2005. Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years. International Journal of Climatology 25, 279-294.

Vaughan, S., Edelson, R., Warwick, R.S., Uttley, P. 2003. On characterizing the variability properties of X-ray light curves from active galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 345 (4), 1271-1284.

Vieira, G., López-Martínez, J., Serrano, E., Ramos, M. 2008. Climate change and permafrost degradation. Geomorphological evidence from Deception and Livingston islands, Maritime Antarctic. In D.L. Kane, K.M. Hindel (eds.), Proceedings Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, pp. 1839-1844.

Vieira, G., Bockheim, J., Guglielmin, M., Balks, M., Andrey, A., Boelhouwers, J., Cannone, N., Ganzer, L., Gilchinsky, D., Goryachkin, S., López-Martínez, J., Meiklejohn, I., Raffi, R., Ramos, M., Schaefer, C., Serrano, E., Simas, F., Sletten, R., Wagner, D. 2010. Thermal state of Antarctic permafrost and active-layer dynamics: Advances during the International Polar Year 2007-2008. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 21, 182-197.

Vieira, G., Mora, C., Pina, P., Schaefer, C. 2014. A proxy for snow cover and winter ground surface cooling: mapping Usnea sp. communities using high resolution remote sensing imagery (Maritime Antarctica). Geomorphology 225, 69-75.

Vtyurin, B.I., Moskalevskiy, M.Y. 1985. Cryogenic landforms on King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Geography and Geology 9 (1), 62-69.

Watcham, E.P., Bentley, M.J., Hodgson, D.A., Roberts, S.J., Fretwell, P.T., Lloyd, J.M., Larter, R.D., Whitehouse, P.L., Leng, M.J., Monien, P., Moreton, S.G. 2011. A new relative sea level curve for the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 3152-3170.

Xie, Y. 1988. Chemical weathering in permafrost regions of Antarctica. Great Wall Station of China, Casey Station and Davis Station of Australia. Fifth International Conference, Proceeding, Trondheim, pp. 511-515.

Ye, Z., Tianjie, L. 1996. The pedogenic groups and diagnostic characteristics in Fildes Peninsula of King George Island, Antarctica. Antarctic Research 7 (1), 70-78.

Zhu, C., Cui, Z., Zhang, J. 1996. Relationship between the distribution of periglacial landforms and glaciation history, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 7, 95-100.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18172/cig.2965

Copyright (c) 2016 J. López-Martínez, T. Schmid, E. Serrano, S. Mink, A. Nieto, S. Guillaso

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540