The Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in central Patagonia, 44°S–49°S

M. Mendelova, A.S. Hein, R. McCulloch, B. Davies


This paper reviews published geochronological data on glacier fluctuations and environmental changes in central Patagonia (44° S - 49° S) from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) through to the Holocene. Well-dated glacial chronologies from the southern mid-latitudes can inform on the synchronicity of glacial advances worldwide and provide insight on the drivers of southern hemisphere glaciations. In central Patagonia, two large outlet lobes of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet advanced in broad synchrony with the global LGM. In contrast to other parts of Patagonia, there is no convincing evidence for a more extensive local LGM advance during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Deglaciation initiated at ca. 19 ka, earlier than in other parts of Patagonia and regionally in the Southern Hemisphere, and rapid deglaciation saw ice margins retreat in places by at least 80-120 km within a few millennia. The Lateglacial glacier margins are poorly constrained, but an ice mass substantial enough to maintain a large regional proglacial lake must have persisted at this time. The timing of lake drainage and opening of the Río Baker drainage route to the Pacific Ocean is debated; the only directly dated shoreline suggests this occurred at the end of the Antarctic Cold Reversal at 12.7 ka. Palaeoecological evidence for cooling during the Antarctic Cold Reversal or Younger Dryas remains equivocal, which may reflect both the eurythermic nature of Patagonian vegetation and shifting Southern Westerly Winds. Eastern outlet glaciers appear to have advanced or stabilised at the Lateglacial/Holocene transition when palaeoenvironmental records indicate warmer and drier conditions, but the reason for this is unclear. Our review reveals both spatial and temporal gaps in available data that provide avenues for future research.


Last Glacial Maximum; deglaciation; Holocene; Patagonia; glacial chronology

Full Text:



Ackert, R., Becker, R.A., Singer, B.S., Kurz, M.D., Caffee, M.W., Mickelson, D.M. 2008. Patagonian Glacier Response during the Late Glacial - Holocene Transition. Science 321, 5887, 392-396.

Aravena, J.C., Luckman, B.H. 2009. Spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in 542 Southern South America. International Journal of Climatology 29, 2106-2120. Doi: 10.1002/joc.1761

Balco, G., Stone, J.O., Lifton, N.A., Dunai, T.J. 2008. A complete and easily accessible means of calculating surface exposure ages or erosion rates from 10Be and 26Al measurements. Quaternary Geochronology 3, (3) 174-195.

Bamonte, F.P., Mancini, M.V. 2011. Palaeoenvironmental changes since Pleistocene-Holocene transition: Pollen analysis from a wetland in southwestern Patagonia (Argentina). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 165 (1-2), 103-110.

Bell, C.M. 2008. Punctuated drainage of an ice-damned Quaternary lake in Southern South America. Geografiska Annaler 90A (1), 1-17.

Bennett, K.D., Haberle, S.G., Lumley, S.H. 2000. The Last Glacial-Holocene Transition in Southern Chile. Science 290, 325-328.

Bertrand, S., Hughen, K.A., Lamy, F., Stuut, J.B.W., Torrejón, F., Lange, C.B. 2012. Precipitation as the main driver of Neoglacial fluctuations of Gualas glacier, Northern Patagonian Icefield. Climate of the Past 8 (2), 519-534.

Boex, J., Fogwill, C., Harrison, S., Glasser, N.F., Hein, A., Schnabel, C., Xu, S. 2013. Rapid thinning of the late Pleistocene Patagonian Ice Sheet followed migration of the Southern Westerlies. Scientific Reports 3, 2118.

Bourgois, J., Cisternas, M.E., Braucher, R., Bourlès, D., Frutos, J. 2016. Geomorphic Records along the General Carrera (Chile)-Buenos Aires (Argentina) Glacial Lake (46°-48°S), Climate Inferences, and Glacial Rebound for the Past 7-9 ka. The Journal of Geology 124 (1), 27-53. Doi:10.1086/687551

Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates. Radiocarbon 51 (1), 337-360.

Caldenius, C.R.C. 1932. Las glaciaciones cuaternarias en la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Geografiska Annaler 14, 1-164.

Carrivick, J.L., Davies, B.J., James, W.H.M., Quincey, D.J., Glasser, N.F. 2016. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America. Global and Planetary Change 146, 122-132.

Clapperton, C.M. 1993. Nature of environmental changes in South America at the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 101 (3-4), 189-208.

Clark, P.U., Dyke, A.S., Shakun, J.D., Carlson, A.E., Clark, J., Wohlfarth, B., Mitrovica, J.X., Hostetler, S.W., McCabe, A.M. 2009. The Last Glacial Maximum. Science 325, 710-714.

Darvill, C.M., Bentley, M.J., Stokes, C.R., Hein, A.S., Rodés, Á. 2015. Extensive MIS 3 glaciation in southernmost Patagonia revealed by cosmogenic nuclide dating of outwash sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 429, 157-169.

Davies, B.J., Glasser, N.F. 2012. Accelerating shrinkage of Patagonian glaciers from the Little Ice Age (~AD 1870) to 2011. Journal of Glaciology 58 1063-1084.

Denton, G.H., Lowell, T. V, Heusser, C.J., Schluchter, C., Andersen, B.G., Heusser, L.E., Moreno, P.I., Marchant, D.R. 1999. Geomorphology, stratigraphy, and radiocarbon chronology of LlanquihueDrift in the area of the Southern Lake District, Seno Reloncaví, and Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile. Geografiska Annaler Series A Physical Geography 81A (2), 167-229.

de Porras, M.E., Maldonado, A., Abarzúa, A.M., Cárdenas, M.L., Francois, J.P., Martel-Cea, A., Stern, C.R., Méndez, C., Reyes, O. 2012. Postglacial vegetation, fire and climate dynamics at Central Chilean Patagonia (Lake Shaman, 44°S). Quaternary Science Reviews 50, 71-85.

de Porras, M.E., Maldonado, A., Quintana, F.A., Martel-Cea, A., Reyes, O., Méndez, C. 2014. Environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44°S). Climate of the Past 10 (3), 1063-1078.

Doughty, A.M., Schaefer, J.M., Putnam, A.E., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M.R., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Kelley, S.E., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R. 2015. Mismatch of glacier extent and summer insolation in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Geology 43 (5), 407-410.

Douglass, D., Singer, B., Kaplan, M., Mickelson, D., Caffee, M. 2006. Cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of boulders on last-glacial and late-glacial moraines, Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina: Interpretive strategies and paleoclimate implications. Quaternary Geochronology 1 (1), 43-58.

Douglass, D.C., Bockheim, J.G. 2006. Soil-forming rates and processes on Quaternary moraines near Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina. Quaternary Research 65 (2), 293-307.

Douglass, D.C., Singer, B.S., Kaplan, M.R., Ackert, R.P., Mickelson, D.M., Caffee, M.W. 2005. Evidence of early Holocene glacial advances in southern South America from cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. Geology 33 (3), 237-240.

Dowdeswell, J.A., Dowdeswell, E.K., Rodrigo, C., Diaz, J. 2016. Assemblage of glacial and related landforms in the fjords of southern Chile. In: J.A. Dowdeswell, M. Canals, M. Jakobsson, J. Todd, E.K. Dowdeswell, K.A. Hogan (Eds.), Geological Society, London, Memoirs: 131-134.

Dowdeswell, J.A., Vásquez, M. 2013. Submarine landforms in the fjords of southern Chile: Implications for glacimarine processes and sedimentation in a mild glacier-influenced environment. Quaternary Science Reviews 64, 1-19.

Fernandez, R., Anderson, J., Bertrand, S., Wellner, J. 2012. Gualas Glacier sedimentary record of climate and environmental change, Golfo Elefantes, Western Patagonia (46.5°S). Holocene 22 (4), 451-463.

Fogwill, C.J., Kubik, P.W. 2005. A glacial stage spanning the Antarctic Cold Reversal in Torres del Paine (51°S), Chile, based on preliminary cosmogenic exposure ages. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87 (2), 403-408.

García, J.L., Hall, B.L., Kaplan, M.R., Vega, R.M., Strelin, J.A. 2014. Glacial geomorphology of the Torres del Paine region (southern Patagonia): Implications for glaciation, deglaciation and paleolake history. Geomorphology 204, 599-616.

Garcia, J.L., Kaplan, M.R., Hall, B.L., Schaefer, J.M., Vega, R.M., Schwartz, R., Finkel, R. 2012. Glacier expansion in southern Patagonia throughout the Antarctic cold reversal. Geology 40 (9), 859-862.

Garreaud, R., Lopez, P., Minvielle, M., Rojas, M. 2013. Large-scale control on the Patagonian climate. Journal of Climate 26 (1), 215-230.

Garreaud, R.D. 2009. The Andes climate and weather. Advances in Geosciences 22, 3-11. Doi:10.5194 / ADGEO-22-3-2009.

Garreaud, R.D., Vuille, M., Compagnucci, R., Marengo, J. 2009. Present-day South American climate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281 (3-4), 180-195.

Gilli, A., Anselmetti, F.S., Ariztegui, D., Beres, M., McKenzie, J.A., Markgraf, V. 2005. Seismic stratigraphy, buried beach ridges and contourite drifts: the Late Quaternary history of the closed Lago Cardiel basin, Argentina (49°S). Sedimentology 52, 1, 1-23.

Glasser, N.F., Ghiglione, M.C. 2009. Structural, tectonic and glaciological controls on the evolution of fjord landscapes. Geomorphology 105, 3-4, 291-302.

Glasser, N.F., Harrison, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Duller, G.A.T., Kubik, P.W. 2006. Evidence from the Rio Bayo valley on the extent of the North Patagonian Icefield during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Quaternary Research 65, 1, 70-77. Doi:

Glasser, N.F., Harrison, S., Schnabel, C., Fabel, D., Jansson, K.N. 2012. Younger Dryas and early Holocene age glacier advances in Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 58, 7-17.

Glasser, N.F., Harrison, S., Winchester, V., Aniya, M. 2004. Late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoclimate and glacier fluctuations in Patagonia. Global and Planetary Change 43 (1-2), 79101.

Glasser, N.F., Jansson, K., Mitchell, W.A., Harrison, S. 2006. The geomorphology and sedimentology of the ‘Témpanos’ moraine at Laguna San Rafael, Chile. Journal of Quaternary Science 21 (6), 629-643.

Glasser, N.F., Jansson, K.N. 2005. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers of the Last Glacial Maximum Patagonian Icefield. Quaternary Research 63 (2), 206-211.

Glasser, N.F., Jansson, K.N., Duller, G.A.T., Singarayer, J., Holloway, M., Harrison, S. 2016. Glacial lake drainage in Patagonia (13-8 kyr) and response of the adjacent Pacific Ocean. Scientific reports 6, 21064.

Glasser, N.F., Jansson, K.N., Goodfellow, B.W., de Angelis, H., Rodnight, H., Rood, D.H. 2011. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for moraines in the Lago San Martin Valley, Argentina. Quaternary Research 75 (3), 636-646.

Glasser, N.F., Jansson, K.N., Harrison, S., Kleman, J. 2008. The glacial geomorphology and Pleistocene history of South America between 38°S and 56°S. Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (3-4), 365-390.

Gutiérrez, F., Gioncada, A., González Ferran, O., Lahsen, A., Mazzuoli, R. 2005. The Hudson Volcano and surrounding monogenetic centres (Chilean Patagonia): An example of volcanism associated with ridge-trench collision environment. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 145 (3-4), 207-233.

Haberle, S.G., Bennett, K.D. 2004. Postglacial formation and dynamics of North Patagonian Rainforest in the Chonos Archipelago, Southern Chile. Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 2433-2452.

Harrison, S., Glasser, N., Winchester, V., Haresign, E., Warren, C., Duller, G.A.T., Bailey, R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Jansson, K., Kubik, P. 2008. Glaciar León, Chilean Patagonia: late-Holocene chronology and geomorphology. The Holocene 18 (4), 643-652.

Harrison, S. 2004. The Pleistocene Glaciations of Chile. Developments in Quaternary Sciences 2, part C, 89-103.

Harrison, S., Glasser, N.F., Duller, G.A.T., Jansson, K.N. 2012. Early and mid-Holocene age for the Tempanos moraines, Laguna San Rafael, Patagonian Chile. Quaternary Science Reviews 31, 82-92.

Hein, A.S., Cogez, A., Darvill, C.M., Mendelova, M., Kaplan, M.R., Herman, F., Dunai, T.J., Norton, K., Xu, S., Christl, M., Rodés, Á. Regional mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Patagonia. Submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews.

Hein, A.S., Hulton, N.R.J., Dunai, T.J., Schnabel, C., Kaplan, M.R., Naylor, M., Xu, S. 2009. Middle Pleistocene glaciation in Patagonia dated by cosmogenic-nuclide measurements on outwash gravels. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 286 (1-2), 184-197.

Hein, A.S., Hulton, N.R.J., Dunai, T.J., Sugden, D.E., Kaplan, M.R., Xu, S. 2010. The chronology of the Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial events in central Argentine Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 29 (9-10), 1212-1227.

Henríquez, W.I., Villa-Martínez, R., Vilanova, I., De Pol-Holz, R., Moreno, P. The Last Glacial Termination on the eastern flank of the central Patagonian Andes (47°S). Climate of the Past Discussions September, 1-36, In review.

Heusser, C.J. 2002. On glaciation of the southern Andes with special reference to the Peninsula de Taitao and adjacent Andean cordillera (46°30's). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 15 (5), 577-589.

Hogg, A.G., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P.G., Niu, M., Buck, C.E., Guilderson, T.P., Heaton, T.J., Palmer, J.G., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R.W., Turney, C.S.M., Zimmerman, S.R.H. 2013. SHCal13 Southern Hemisphere Calibration, 0-50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55 (4), 1889-1903.

Hubbard, A., Hein, A.S., Kaplan, M.R., Hulton, N.R.J., Glasser, N.F. 2005. A Modelling Reconstruction Of The Last Glacial Maximum Ice Sheet And Its Deglaciation In The Vicinity Of The Northern Patagonian Icefield, South America. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87 (2), 375-391.

Iglesias, V., Markgraf, V., Whitlock, C. 2016. 17,000 years of vegetation, fire and climate change in the eastern foothills of the Andes (lat. 44°S). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 457, 195-208.

Kaiser, J., Lamy, F., Hebbeln, D. 2005. A 70-kyr sea surface temperature record off southern Chile (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1233). Paleoceanography 20 (4), PA4009.

Kaplan, M.R., Ackert, R.P., Singer, B.S., Douglass, D.C., Kurz, M.D. 2004. Cosmogenic nuclide chronology of millennial-scale glacial advances during O-isotope stage 2 in Patagonia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 116 (3-4), 308-321.

Kaplan, M.R., Fogwill, C.J., Sugden, D.E., Hulton, N.R.J., Kubik, P.W., Freeman, S.P.H.T. 2008. Southern Patagonian glacial chronology for the Last Glacial period and implications for Southern Ocean climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 27 (3-4), 284-294.

Kaplan, M.R., Moreno, P.I., Rojas, M. 2008. Glacial dynamics in southernmost South America during Marine Isotope Stage 5e to the Younger Dryas chron: a brief review with a focus on cosmogenic nuclide measurements. Journal of Quaternary Science 23 (6-7), 649-658.

Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D.J., Chinn, T.J., Putnam, A.E., Andersen, B.G., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Doughty, A.M. 2010. Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial. Nature 467, 194-197.

Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Doughty, A.M., Barrell, D.J.A., Chinn, T.J.H., Putnam, A.E., Andersen, B.G., Mackintosh, A., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Anderson, B. 2013. The anatomy of long-term warming since 15 ka in New Zealand based on net glacier snowline rise. Geology 41 (8), 887-890.

Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J.M., Strelin, J.A., Denton, G.H., Anderson, R.F., Vandergoes, M.J., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Travis, S.G., Garcia, J.L., Martini, M.A., Nielsen, S.H.H. 2016. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 141, 112-125. .

Kaplan, M.R., Strelin, J.A., Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Putnam, A.E., Vandergoes, M.J., Goehring, B.M., Travis, S.G. 2011. In-situ cosmogenic 10Be production rate at Lago Argentino, Patagonia: Implications for late-glacial climate chronology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 309 (1-2), 21-32.

Kelley, S.E., Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J.M., Andersen, B.G., Barrell, D.J.A., Putnam, A.E., Denton, G.H., Schwartz, R., Finkel, R.C., Doughty, A.M. 2014. High-precision 10Be chronology of moraines in the Southern Alps indicates synchronous cooling in Antarctica and New Zealand 42,000 years ago. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 405, 194-206.

Lagabrielle, Y., Suárez, M., Rossello, E.A., Hérail, G., Martinod, J., Régnier, M., de la Cruz, R. 2004. Neogene to Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Patagonian Andes at the latitude of the Chile Triple Junction. Tectonophysics 385, 211-241.

Lambert, F., Delmonte, B., Petit, J.R., Bigler, M., Kaufmann, P.R., Hutterli, M.A., Stocker, T.F., Ruth, U., Steffensen, J.P., Maggi, V. 2008. Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature 452, 616-619.

Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J. 2004. Antarctic timing of surface water changes off Chile and Patagonian ice sheet response. Science 304, 1959-1962.

Lumley, S.H., Switsur, R. 1993. Late Quaternary Chronology of the Taitao peninsula, southern Chile. Journal of Quaternary Science 8 (2), 161-165.

Mackintosh, A.N., Barrows, T.T., Colhoun, E.A., Fifield, L.K. 2006. Exposure dating and glacial reconstruction at Mt. Field, Tasmania, Australia, identifies MIS 3 and MIS 2 glacial advances and climatic variability. Journal of Quaternary Science 21, 363-376.

Markgraf, V., Whitlock, C., Haberle, S. 2007. Vegetation and fire history during the last 18,000 cal yr B.P. in Southern Patagonia: Mallín Pollux, Coyhaique, Province Aisén (45°41′30″S, 71°50′30″ W, 640 m elevation). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254 (3-4), 492-507. Doi:

Marrero, S.M., Phillips, F.M., Borchers, B., Lifton, N., Aumer, R., Balco, G. 2016a. Cosmogenic nuclide systematics and the CRONUScalc program. Quaternary Geochronology 31, 160-187.

Marrero, S.M., Phillips, F.M., Caffee, M.W., Gosse, J.C. 2016b. CRONUS-Earth cosmogenic 36Cl calibration. Quaternary Geochronology 31, 199-219.

Massaferro, J., Brooks, S.J. 2002. Response of chironomids to late quaternary environmental change in the Taitao Peninsula, Southern Chile. Journal of Quaternary Science 17 (2), 101_111.

McCulloch, R., Bentley, M., Tipping, R., Clapperton, C.M. 2005a. Evidence for Late‐Glacial Ice Dammed Lakes In The Central Strait Of Magellan And Bahía Inútil, Southernmost South America. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87, 2, 335-362. - 3676.2005.00262.x.

McCulloch, R.D., Bentley, M.J., Purves, R.S., Hulton, N.R.J., Sugden, D.E., Clapperton, C.M. 2000. Climatic inferences from glacial and palaeoecological evidence at the last glacial termination, southern South America. Journal of Quaternary Science 15 (4), 409-417.<409::AID-JQS539>3.0.CO;2-#.

McCulloch, R.D., Figuerero Torres, M.J., Mengoni Goñalons, G.L., Barclay, R., Mansilla, C. 2016. A Holocene record of environmental change from Rio Zeballos, central Patagonia. The Holocene.

McCulloch, R.D., Fogwill, C.J., Sugden, D.E., Bentley, M.J., Kubik, P.W. 2005b. Chronology of the Last Glaciation in Central Strait of Magellan and Bahía Inútil, Southernmost South America. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87 (2), 289-312. - 3676.2005.00260.x.

Menounos, B., Clague, J.J., Osborn, G., Davis, P.T., Ponce, F., Goehring, B.M., Maurer, M., Rabassa, J.O., Coronato, A., Marr, R. 2013. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations in southernmost Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Quaternary Science Reviews 77, 70-79.

Mercer, J.H. 1968. Variations of some Patagonian glaciers since the Late-Glacial. American Journal of Science 266 (2), 91-109.

Mercer, J.H. 1976. Glacial history of southernmost South America. Quaternary Research 6 (2), 125-166.

Mercer, J.H. 1982. Holocene glacier variations in southern South America. Striae 18, 35-40.

Mercer, J.H. 1983. Cenozoic glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere. Annual Review Earth Planetary Sciences 11, 99-132.

Montade, V., Combourieu Nebout, N., Kissel, C., Haberle, S.G., Siani, G., Michel, E. 2013. Vegetation and climate changes during the last 22,000yr from a marine core near Taitao Peninsula, southern Chile. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 369, 335-348.

Moreno, P.I., Denton, G.H., Moreno, H., Lowell, T. V., Putnam, A.E., Kaplan, M.R. 2015. Radiocarbon chronology of the last glacial maximum and its termination in northwestern Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 122, 233-249.

Moreno, P.I., Kaplan, M.R., François, J.P., Villa-Martínez, R., Moy, C.M., Stern, C.R., Kubik, P.W. 2009. Renewed glacial activity during the Antarctic cold reversal and persistence of cold conditions until 11.5 ka in southwestern Patagonia. Geology 37 (4), 375-378.

Pollock, E.W., Bush, A.B.G. 2013. Atmospheric simulations of southern South America’s climate since the Last Glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 71, 219-228.

Putnam, A.E., Denton, G.H., Schaefer, J.M., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Doughty, A.M., Kaplan, M.R., Schlüchter, C. 2010. Glacier advance in southern middle-latitudes during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Nature Geoscience 3, 700-704.

Putnam, A.E., Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D.J. a., Birkel, S.D., Andersen, B.G., Kaplan, M.R., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R., Doughty, A.M. 2013. The Last Glacial Maximum at 44°S documented by a 10Be moraine chronology at Lake Ohau, Southern Alps of New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews 62, 114-141.

Rabassa, J., Clapperton, C.M. 1990. Quaternary Glaciations of the Southern Andes. Quaternary Science Reviews 9, 153-174.

Rabassa, J., Coronato, A. 2009. Glaciations in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego during the Ensenadan Stage/Age (Early Pleistocene-earliest Middle Pleistocene). Quaternary International 210 (1-2), 18-36.

Rabassa, J., Coronato, A., Bujalesky, G., Salemme, M., Roig, C., Meglioli, A., Heusser, C., Gordillo, S., Roig, F., Borromei, A., Quattrocchio, M. 2000. Quaternary of Tierra del Fuego, Southernmost South America: an updated review. Quaternary International 68-71, 217-240.

Rabassa, J.O.J., Coronato, A., Martínez, O. 2011. Late Cenozoic glaciations in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego: an updated review. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103 (2), 316-335.

Rivera, A., Benham, T., Casassa, G., Bamber, J., Dowdeswell, J.A. 2007. Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile. Global and Planetary Change 59 (1-4), 126-137.

Rodbell, D.T., Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G. 2009. Glaciation in the Andes during the Lateglacial and Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 2165-2212.

Rojas, M., Moreno, P., Kageyama, M., Crucifix, M., Hewitt, C., Abe-Ouchi, A., Ohgaito, R., Brady, E.C., Hope, P. 2009. The Southern Westerlies during the last glacial maximum in PMIP2 simulations. Climate Dynamics 32 (4), 525-548.

Rother, H., Shulmeister, J., Fink, D., Alexander, D., Bell, D. 2015. Surface exposure chronology of the Waimakariri glacial sequence in the Southern Alps of New Zealand : Implications for MIS-2 ice extent and LGM glacial mass balance. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 429, 69-81.

Sagredo, E.A., Lowell, T. V., Kelly, M.A., Rupper, S., Aravena, J.C., Ward, D.J., Malone, A.G. 2016. Equilibrium line altitudes along the Andes during the Last millennium: Paleoclimatic implications. The Holocene.

Sagredo, E.A., Moreno, P.I., Villa-Martínez, R., Kaplan, M.R., Kubik, P.W., Stern, C.R. 2011. Fluctuations of the Última Esperanza ice lobe (52°S), Chilean Patagonia, during the last glacial maximum and termination 1. Geomorphology 125 (1), 92-108.

Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D.J.A., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Andersen, B.G., Phillips, F.M., Lowell, T. V., Schlüchter, C. 2006. Near-Synchronous Interhemispheric Termination of the Last Glacial Maximum in Mid-Latitudes. Science 312, 1510-1513.

Schaefer, J.M., Putnam, A.E., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M.R., Birkel, S., Doughty, A.M., Kelley, S., Barrell, D.J.A., Finkel, R.C., Winckler, G., Anderson, R.F., Ninneman, U.S., Barker, S., Schwartz, R., Andersen, B.G., Schluechter, C. 2015. The Southern Glacial Maximum 65,000 years ago and its Unfinished Termination. Quaternary Science Reviews 114, 52-60.

Siani, G., Colin, C., Michel, E., Carel, M., Richter, T., Kissel, C., Dewilde, F. 2010. Late Glacial to Holocene terrigenous sediment record in the Northern Patagonian margin: Paleoclimate implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 297 (1), 26-36.

Singer, B.S., Ackert, R.P., Guillou, H. 2004. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar chronology of Pleistocene glaciations in Patagonia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116 (3-4), 434-450.

Smedley, R.K., Glasser, N.F., Duller, G.A.T. 2016. Luminescence dating of glacial advances at Lago Buenos Aires (~46°S), Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 134, 59-73.

Stern, C.R. 2004. Active Andean volcanism: its geologic and tectonic setting. Revista Geológica de Chile 31 (2), 1-51.

Strelin, J.A., Denton, G.H., Vandergoes, M.J., Ninnemann, U.S., Putnam, A.E. 2011. Radiocarbon chronology of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraines, Southern Patagonian Icefield, Argentina. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 19-20, 2551-2569.

Strelin, J.A., Kaplan, M.R., Vandergoes, M.J., Denton, G.H., Schaefer, J.M. 2014. Holocene glacier history of the Lago Argentino basin, Southern Patagonian Icefield. Quaternary Science Reviews 101, 124-145.

Sugden, D.E., Bentley, M.J., Fogwill, C.J., Hulton, N.R.J., Mcculloch, R.D., Purves, R.S. 2005. Late-Glacial Glacier Events in Southernmost South America: a Blend of ‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’ Hemispheric Climatic Signals ? Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87 (2), 273-288.

Sugden, D.E., McCulloch, R.D., Bory, A.J.-M., Hein, A.S. 2009. Influence of Patagonian glaciers on Antarctic dust deposition during the last glacial period. Nature Geoscience 2 (4), 281-285.

Sylwan, C.A. 1989. Paleomagnetism, paleoclimate, and chronology of Late Cenozoic deposits in southern Argentina. Stockholm University.

Toggweiler, J.R., Russell, J.L., Carson, S.R. 2006. Midlatitude westerlies, atmospheric CO2, and climate change during the ice ages. Paleoceanography 21 (2), 1-15.

Turner, K.J., Fogwill, C.J., McCulloch, R.D., Sugden, D.E. 2005. Deglaciation of The Eastern Flank Of The North Patagonian Icefield And Associated Continental-Scale Lake Diversions. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 87 (2), 363-374.

Turney, C.S.M., Roberts, R.G., de Jonge, N., Prior, C., Wilmshurst, J.M., McGlone, M.S., Cooper, J. 2007. Redating the advance of the New Zealand Franz Josef Glacier during the Last Termination: evidence for asynchronous climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 3037-3042.

Van Daele, M., Bertrand, S., Meyer, I., Moernaut, J., Vandoorne, W., Siani, G., Tanghe, N., Ghazoui, Z., Pino, M., Urrutia, R., De Batist, M. 2016. Late Quaternary evolution of Lago Castor (Chile, 45.6°S): Timing of the deglaciation in northern Patagonia and evolution of the southern westerlies during the last 17 kyr. Quaternary Science Reviews 133, 130-146.

Vandekerkhove, E., Bertrand, S., Reid, B., Bartels, A., Charlier, B. 2016. Sources of dissolved silica to the fjords of northern Patagonia (44-48°S): The importance of volcanic ash soil distribution and weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41 (4), 499-512.

Vanneste, H., De Vleeschouwer, F., Martínez-Cortizas, A., von Scheffer, C., Piotrowska, N., Coronato, A., Le Roux, G. 2015. Late-glacial elevated dust deposition linked to westerly wind shifts in southern South America. Scientific reports 5, 11670.

Villa-Martínez, R., Moreno, P.I., Valenzuela, M.A. 2012. Deglacial and postglacial vegetation changes on the eastern slopes of the central Patagonian Andes (47°S). Quaternary Science Reviews 32, 86-99.

Völker, D., Geersen, J., Contreras-Reyes, E., Reichert, C. 2013. Sedimentary fill of the Chile Trench (32-46°S): volumetric distribution and causal factors. Journal of the Geological Society 170 (5), 723-736.

Warren, C.R., Sugden, D.E. 1993. The Patagonian Icefields: A Glaciological Review. Arctic and Alpine Research 25 (4), 316-331.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540