Desertification and Degradation Risks vs Poverty: A Key Topic in Mediterranean Europe

Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Rosanna Salvia, Gianluca Egidi, Luca Salvati, Antonio Giménez-Morera, Giovanni Quaranta


Land degradation and, subsequently, desertification processes are conditioned by biophysical factors and human impacts. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest by social scientists to assess its implications. Especially, it is relevant to the potential changes and landscape deterioration on population, economic systems and feedbacks of local societies to such adjustments. Assessing social facets should also be related to desertification risks, integrated socio-economic inputs and environmentally sustainable development perspectives. However, investigations about the effects of land degradation conditioned by global socioeconomic-factors from a holistic point of view are scarce. In this review, we pretend to discuss past and recent findings on land degradation risks related to poverty, especially based on Mediterranean Europe. To achieve this goal, we focused on key socioeconomic forces such as developmental policy, production and market structure, social change and population mobility. Our review showed that regional disparities based on complex dynamics of demographic forces (e.g. migration, fertility and ageing) and economic drivers of change (e.g. industrial concentration, urbanization, crop intensification, tourism pressure, coastalization) are keys to understand Mediterranean regions such as Southern Italy, a region exposed to high desertification risk in Europe. We concluded that the overexploitation of territories, soil and water degradation urban expansion, tourism and unplanned industrialization are some sectors and activities which can be highly affected by political and socioeconomic forces leading to unsustainable forms of land management and types of development. Special attention should be paid to social policies, education and training schemes to reduce rural migration and potentiate territorial knowledge to avoid land degradation, considering other social issues such as poverty or centralization. The potential role of win-win policies abating poverty and reducing desertification risk is evident in Mediterranean Europe and achieving land degradation neutrality necessary.


Land degradation; regional geographical disparities; demographic dynamics; Social processes; Southern Europe

Full Text:

Preprint (PDF)


Abdalla, M., Hastings, A., Chadwick, D. R., Jones, D. L., Evans, C. D., Jones, M. B., Rees, R. M., Smith, P., 2018. Critical review of the impacts of grazing intensity on soil organic carbon storage and other soil quality indicators in extensively managed grasslands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 253, 62-81.

Ahmadi, B., Moradkhani, H., 2019. Revisiting hydrological drought propagation and recovery considering water quantity and quality. Hydrological Processes 33 (10), 1492-1505.

Akhtar-Schuster, M., Stringer, L.C., Erlewein, A., Metternicht, G., Minelli, S., Safriel, U., Sommer, S., 2017. Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio Conventions. Journal of Environmental Management 195, 4-15.

Amissah-Arthur, A., Mougenot, B., Loireau, M., 2000. Assessing farmland dynamics and land degradation on Sahelian landscapes using remotely sensed and socioeconomic data. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14 (6), 583-599.

Amit, R., Enzel, Y., Sharon, D., 2006. Permanent quaternary hyperaridity in the Negev, Israel, resulting from regional tectonics blocking Mediterranean frontal systems. Geology 34 (6), 509-512.

Arnaez, J., Lasanta, T., Errea, M.P., Ortigosa, L., 2011. Land abandonment, landscape evolution, and soil erosion in a Spanish Mediterranean mountain region: The Case of Camero Viejo. Land Degradation & Development 22 (6), 537-550.

Arshad, M. A., Martin, S., 2002. Identifying critical limits for soil quality indicators in agro-ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 88, 153-160.

Asadi, H., Raeisvandi, A., Rabiei, B., Ghadiri, H., 2012. Effect of land use and topography on soil properties and agronomic productivity on calcareous soils of a semiarid region, Iran. Land Degradation & Development 23 (5), 496-504.

Askri, B., Al-Shanfari, R.A., 2017. Assessment of hydro-chemical processes inducing the groundwater salinisation in coastal regions: case study of the Salalah Plain, Sultanate of Oman. In: Water Resources in Arid Areas: The Way Forward, pp. 351-368. Springer.

Auernheimer, C., González, G., 2002. Repercussions of the national hydrological plan on the Spanish Mediterranean coast (water versus tourism and agriculture). In: D. Camarda, L. Grassini (Edrs.). Local resources and global trades: environments and agriculture in the Mediterranean region, pp. 179-185. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, 57.

Bajocco, S., De Angelis, A., Salvati, L., 2012. A satellite-based green index as a proxy for vegetation cover quality in a Mediterranean region. Ecological Indicators 23, 578-587.

Bandala, E. R., Rodriguez-Narvaez, O.M., 2019. On the nature of hydrodynamic cavitation process and its application for the removal of water pollutants. Air, Soil and Water Research 12.

Barbero-Sierra, C., Marques, M.J., Ruíz-Pérez., M., 2013. The case of urban sprawl in Spain as an active and irreversible driving force for desertification. Journal of Arid Environments 90, 95-102.

Barbier, E. B. 2000. The economic linkages between rural poverty and land degradation: some evidence from Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 82 (1), 355-370.

Baumber, A., Berry, E., Metternicht, G., 2019. Synergies between land degradation neutrality goals and existing market-based instruments. Environmental Science and Policy 94, 174-181.

Bekun, F. V., Alola, A.A., Sarkodie, S.A., 2019. Toward a sustainable environment: nexus between CO2 emissions, resource rent, renewable and nonrenewable energy in 16-EU countries. Science of The Total Environment 657, 1023-1029.

Berry, E., Metternicht, G., Baumber, A., 2019. This country just hangs tight: Perspectives on managing land degradation and climate change in Far West NSW. The Rangeland Journal 41 (3), 197-210.

Bilsborrow, R. E. 1992. Population growth, internal migration, and environmental degradation in rural areas of developing countries. European Journal of Population 8 (2), 125-148.

Boix-Fayos, C., Calvo-Cases, A., Imeson, A. C., Mariano-Soto, M. D. 2001. Influence of soil properties on the aggregation of some Mediterranean soils and the use of aggregate size and stability as land degradation indicators. Catena 44, 47-67.

Borrelli, P., Panagos, P., Ballabio, C., Lugato, E., Weynants, M., Montanarella, L., 2016. Towards a Pan-European assessment of land susceptibility to wind erosion. Land Degradation & Development 27 (4), 1093-1105.

Bottrill, C. 2010. Sustainability and tourism. Management Center Innsbruck. Austria 28.

Bouma, J., Varallyay, G., Batjes, N. H. 1998. Principal land use changes anticipated in Europe. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 67 (2), 103-119.

Bradford, J. M., Remley, P. A., Ferris, J. E., Santini, J. B., 1986. Effect of soil surface sealing on splash from a single waterdrop. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50 (6), 1547.

Brandt, C. J., Thorne, C. R., 1996. Mediterranean desertification and land use. Wiley. USA.

Brandt, C. J., Nichola, G., Imeson, A. C., 2003. A Desertification indicator system for the Mediterranean Europe.

Butzer, K. W., 2005. Environmental history in the Mediterranean world: cross-disciplinary investigation of cause-and-effect for degradation and soil erosion. Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (12), 1773-1800.

Campos, P., Huntsinger, L., Oviedo, J. L., Starrs, P. F., Diaz, M., Standiford, R. B., Montero, G., (Edrs.). 2013. Mediterranean oak woodland working landscapes. Dehesas of Spain and ranchlands of California. Landscape Series 16. Springer, 508 pag., 10.1007/978-94-007-6707-2

Carrión, J. S., Fernández, S., Jiménez-Moreno, G., Fauquette, S., Gil-Romera, G., González-Sampériz, P., Finlayson, C., 2010. The historical origins of aridity and vegetation degradation in southeastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 74 (7), 731-736.

Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in three years abandoned field in southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 20 (3-4), 271-279.

Cerdà, A., 1998. Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena 32 (2), 73-86.

Cerdà, A., Novara, A., Dlapa, P., López-Vicente, M., Úbeda, X., Popovic, Z., Mekonnen, M., Terol, E., Janizadeh, S., Mbarki, S., Saldanha-Vogelmann, E., Hazrati, S. Sannigrahi, S., Parhizkar, M., Giménez-Morera, A., 2021. Rainfall and water yield in Macizo Del Caroig, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Event runoff at plot scale during a rare flash flood at the Barranco de Benacancil. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica (Geographical Research Letters) 47.

Chasek, P., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Orr, B. J., Luise, A., Rakoto Ratsimba, H., Safriel, U., 2019. Land degradation neutrality: The science-policy interface from the UNCCD to national implementation. Environmental Science and Policy 92, 182-190.

Chopra, K., Gulati, S. C., 1997. Environmental degradation and population movements: The role of property rights. Environmental and Resource Economics 9 (4), 383-408.

Ciais, Ph, Reichstein, M., Viovy, N., Granier, A., Ogée, J., Allard, V., Aubinet, M., N. Buchmann, N., Bernhofer, Chr., Carrara, A., Chevallier, F., De Noblet, N., Friend, A. D., Friedlingstein, P., Grünwald, T., Heinesch, B., Keronen, P., Knohl, A., Krinner, G., Loustau, D., Manca, G., Matteucci, G., Miglietta, F., Ourcival, J.M., Papale, D., Pilegaard, K., Rambal, S., Seufert, G., Soussana, J. F., Sanz, M. J., Schulze, E. D., Vesala, T., Valentini, R., 2005. Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 529-533.

Coelho, C. O. A., Sala, M., 1998. Erosion and land degradation in the Mediterranean. Geoökodynamik 19 (3/4), 318.

Collantes, V., Kloos, K., Henry, P., Mboya, A., Mor, T., Metternicht, G., 2018. Moving towards a twin-agenda: Gender equality and land degradation neutrality. Environmental Science and Policy 89, 247-253.

Colucci, A., 2017. Peri-urban/peri-rural areas: identities, values and strategies. In Peri-Urban Areas and Food-Energy-Water Nexus, pp. 99-104. Springer.

Conacher, A. J., Sala, M., (Edrs). 1998. Land degradation in Mediterranean environments of the World: Nature and extent, causes and solutions. Chichester , New York.

Crossland, M., Winowiecki, L. A., Pagella, T., Hadgu, K., Sinclair, F., 2018. Implications of variation in local perception of degradation and restoration processes for implementing land degradation neutrality. Environmental Development 28, 42-54.

Cuffaro, N. 2001. Population, economic growth and agriculture in less developed countries. Routledge, 188 pag., UK.

Dallimer, M., Stringer, L.C., 2018. Informing investments in land degradation neutrality efforts: A triage approach to decision making. Environmental Science and Policy 89, 198-205.

Drechsel, P., Gyiele, L., Kunze, D., Cofie, O., 2001. Population density, soil nutrient depletion, and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics 38 (2), 251-258.

Dunkerley, D. 2004. Flow threads in surface run-off: Implications for the assessment of flow properties and friction coefficients in soil erosion and hydraulics investigations. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29 (8), 1011-1026.

Duvernoy, I., Zambon, I., Sateriano, A., Salvati, L., 2018. Pictures from the other side of the fringe: Urban growth and peri-urban agriculture in a post-industrial city (Toulouse, France). Journal of Rural Studies 57, 25-35.

Emadodin, I., Reinsch, T., Taube, F., 2019. Drought and desertification in Iran. Hydrology 6 (3), 66.

Fernández, C., Vega, J. A., 2014. Efficacy of bark strands and straw mulching after wildfire in NW Spain: Effects on erosion control and vegetation recovery. Ecological Engineering 63, 50-57.

Fini, A., Frangi, P., Mori, J., Donzelli, D., Ferrini, F., 2017. Nature based solutions to mitigate soil sealing in urban areas: Results from a 4-year study comparing permeable, porous, and impermeable pavements. Environmental Research 156, 443-454.

Francke, A., Holtvoeth, J., Codilean, A. T., Lacey, J. H., Bayon, G., Dosseto, A., 2020. Geochemical methods to infer landscape response to Quaternary Climate Change and land use in depositional archives: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 207, 103218.

García Latorre, J., Garcı́a-Latorre, J., Sanchez-Picón, A., 2001. Dealing with aridity: socio-economic structures and environmental changes in an arid Mediterranean region. Land Use Policy, 18 (1), 53-64.

García Marín, R. 2008. La sequía: De riesgo natural a inducido. El ejemplo de la cuenca del río Segura (Sureste de España). Vegueta 10, 85-92.

García-Ruiz, J. M., Lana-Renault, N. 2011. Hydrological and erosive consequences of farmland abandonment in Europe, with special reference to the Mediterranean region–a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 140 (3), 317-338.

García-Ruiz, J. M., Lasanta-Martínez, T., Ortigosa-Izquierdo, L., Arnáez-Vadillo, J., 1986. Pipes in cultivated soils of La Rioja: Origin and evolution. Zeitschrift Für Geomorphologie. Supplementband 58, 93-100.

García-Ruiz, J. M., Lasanta, T., Martí, C., González, C., White, S., Ortigosa, L., Ruiz Flaño, 1995. Changes in runoff and erosion as a consequence of land-use changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth 20 (3-4), 301.

García-Ruiz, J. M., Nadal-Romero, E., Lana-Renault, N., Beguería, S., 2013. Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: Changes and future challenges. Geomorphology 198, 20-36.

García-Ruiz, J. M., Beguería, S., Nadal-Romero, E., González-Hidalgo, J.C., Lana-Renault, N., Sanjuán, Y., 2015. A meta-analysis of soil erosion rates across the world. Geomorphology 239, 160-173.

Gates, L. D., Ließ, S., 2001. Impacts of deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region as simulated by the MPI Atmospheric GCM. Global and Planetary Change 30, 309-328.

Gholami, H., Telfer, M.W., Blake, W.H., Fathabadi, A., 2017. Aeolian sediment fingerprinting using a Bayesian mixing model. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42 (14), 2365-2376.

Giampietro, M., 2019. On the circular bioeconomy and decoupling: Implications for sustainable growth. Ecological Economics 162, 143-156.

Gichenje, H., Godinho, S., 2018. Establishing a land degradation neutrality national baseline through trend analysis of GIMMS NDVI Time-Series. Land Degradation & Development 29 (9), 2985-2997.

Greenwood, K.L., McKenzie., B. M., 2001. Grazing effects on soil physical properties and the consequences for pastures: A review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41 (8), 1231-1250.

Haan, L. D., Zoomers, A., 2003. Development geography at the crossroads of livelihood and globalisation. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 94 (3), 350-362.

Heat, J., Bingswangerb, H., 1996. Natural resource degradation effects of poverty and population growth are largely policy-induced: The case of Colombia. Environment and Development Economics 1 (1), 65-84.

Herrmann, S. M., Hutchinson, C.F., 2005. The changing contexts of the desertification debate. Journal of Arid Environments, Special Issue on the “Greening” of the Sahel 63 (3), 538-555.

Hitzhusen, G. E. 2006. Religion and environmental education: Building on common ground. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education (CJEE) 11 (1), 9-25.

Hoffman, I., Gerlink, D., Kyiogwom, U. B., Mané-Bielfeldt, A., 2001. Farmers management strategies to maintain soil fertility in a remote area in northwest Nigeria. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 86 (2001), 263-275.

Holland, J. M. 2004. The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: Reviewing the evidence. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 103, 1-25.

Hussen, A. 2018. Principles of environmental economics and sustainability: An integrated economic and ecological approach. Routledge. UK.

Kalantari, Z., Ferreira, C. S. S., Keesstra, S., Destouni, G., 2018. Nature-based solutions for flood-drought risk mitigation in vulnerable urbanizing parts of East-Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Science and Health 5, 73-78.

Karamesouti, M., Detsis, V., Kounalaki, A., Vasiliou, P., Salvati, L., Kosmas, C., 2015. Land-use and land degradation processes affecting soil resources: Evidence from a traditional Mediterranean cropland (Greece). Catena 132, 45-55.

Keesstra, S., Mol, G., De Leeuw, J., Okx, J., Molenaar, C., De Cleen, M., Visser, S, 2018. Soil-related sustainable development goals: Four concepts to make land degradation neutrality and restoration work. Land 7 (4), 133.

Knerr, B. 2004. Desertification and human migration. In: D. Werner (Edr.), Biological Resources and Migration, Springer, 317-337 pp., Springer. Berlin, Heidelberg.

Koiter, A. J., Owens, P. N., Petticrew, E. L., Lobb., D.A., 2017. The role of soil surface properties on the particle size and carbon selectivity of interrill erosion in agricultural landscapes. Catena 153, 194-206.

Kosmas, C., Karamesouti, M., Kounalaki, K., Detsis, V., Vassiliou, P., Salvati, L., 2016. Land degradation and long-term changes in agro-pastoral systems: An empirical analysis of ecological resilience in Asteroussia-Crete (Greece). Catena 147, 196-204.

Kou, M., Jiao, J., Yin, Q., Wang, N., Wang, Z., Li, Y., Yu, W., Wei, Y., Yan, F., Cao, B. 2016. Successional trajectory over 10 years of vegetation restoration of abandoned slope croplands in the hill-gully region of the Loess Plateau. Land Degradation & Development 27 (4), 919-932.

Lal, R. 1990. Erosion measurement and evaluation. In: R. Lal (Edr.), Soil Erosion in the Tropics: Principles and Management. McGraw Hill, pp. 183-223, New York.

Larrey, M., Mouthereau, F., Masini, E., Huyghe, D., Gaucher, E.C., Virgone, A., Miegebielle, V., 2020. Quaternary tectonic and climate changes at the origin of travertine and calcrete in the Eastern Betics (Almería Region, SE Spain). Journal of the Geological Society 177, 939-954.

Lasanta, T., Perez-Rontome, C., García-Ruiz, J. M., Machín, J., Navas, A., 1995. Hydrological problems resulting from farmland abandonment in semi-arid environments: The Central Ebro Depression. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth 20 (3-4): 309.

Lotfi, D., Yann, L., Gerhard, S., Mohamed, H., Rajouene, M., 2018. Identifying the origin of groundwater salinisation in the Sidi El Hani Basin (Central-Eastern Tunisia). Journal of African Earth Sciences 147, 443-449.

Lozano-Parra, J., Schnabel, S., Ceballos-Barbancho, A., 2015. The role of vegetation covers on soil wetting processes at rainfall event scale in scattered tree woodland of Mediterranean climate. Journal of Hydrology 529, 951-961.

Martínez-Valderrama, J., Ibáñez, J., Del Barrio, G., Sanjuán, M.E., Alcalá, F.J., Martínez-Vicente, S., Ruiz, A., Puigdefábregas. J., 2016. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation. The Science of the Total Environment 563-564, 169-178.

Marzen, M., Iserloh, T., Casper, M.C., Ries, J.B., 2015. Quantification of particle detachment by rain splash and wind-driven rain splash. Catena 127, 135-141.

McTainsh, G. H., Burgess, R., Pitblado, J.R., 1989. Aridity, drought and dust storms in Australia (1960-84). Journal of Arid Environments 16 (1), 11-22.

Minea, G., Ioana-Toroimac, G., Moro, G., 2019. The dominant runoff processes on grassland versus bare soil hillslopes in a temperate environment - An experimental study. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics 67, 8.

Munafò, M., Salvati, L., Zitti, M. 2013. Estimating soil sealing rate at National level. Italy as a case study. Ecological Indicators 26, 137-140.

Nadal-Romero, E., González-Hidalgo, J.C., Cortesi, N., Desir, G., Gómez, J. A., Lasanta, T., Lucía, A., Marín, C., Martínez-Murillo, J. F., Pacheco, E., Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L., Romero Díaz, A., Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D., Taguas, E. W., Taboada-Castro, M. M., Taboada-Castro, M. T., Úbeda, X., Zabaleta, A., 2015. Relationship of runoff, erosion and sediment yield to weather types in the Iberian Peninsula. Geomorphology 228, 372-381.

Nath, B. 2016. Environmental education and awareness. Religion, culture and sustainable development -Volume III, II. EOLSS Publications, Oxford, UK.

Nocenzi, M. 2005. Environment and value challenge: Persistence and changes. International Review of Sociology 15 (2), 291-292.

Philips, M. R., Jones, A.L. 2006. Erosion and tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone: Problems, consequences and management. Tourism Management 27 (3): 517-524.

Poesen, J. 2018. Soil erosion in the Anthropocene: Research needs. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43 (1), 64-84.

Powell, M., Boyne, G., Ashworth, R., 2001. Towards a Geography of People Poverty and Place Poverty. Policy & Politics 29 (3), 243–258.

Prakash, S., 1997. Poverty and environment linkages in mountains and uplands: Reflections on the ‘Poverty Trap’ Thesis. CREED Working Paper, 12.

Puigdefábregas, J., Mendizabal, T., 1998. Perspectives on desertification: Western Mediterranean. Journal of Arid Environments 39 (2), 209–224.

Pulido, M., Barrena-González, J., Alfonso-Torreño, A., Robina-Ramírez, R., Keesstra, S., 2019. The problem of water use in rural areas of Southwestern Spain: A local perspective. Water 11 (6), 1311.

Reidy, M. F. 2000. The longest commute: The Geography of poverty, employment, and services. New England Journal of Public Policy 16 (1), 53-68.

Rey Benayas, J. M., Martins, A., Nicolau, J. M., Schulz, J. J., 2007. Abandonment of Agricultural Land: An Overview of Drivers and Consequences. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 2 (57), 1–14.

Reynolds, J. F., Grainger, A., Stafford Smith, D.M., Bastin, G., Garcia-Barrios, L., Fernández, R. J., Janssen, M.A., Jürgens, N., Scholes, R. J., Veldkamp, A., Verstraete, M. M., Von Maltitz, G., Zdruliet, P., 2011. Scientific Concepts for an Integrated Analysis of Desertification. Land Degradation & Development 22, 166-183.

Rodrigo-Comino, J., Senciales, J. M., Sillero-Medina, J.A., Gyasi-Agyei, Y., Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D., Ries, J.B., 2019. Analysis of weather-type-induced soil erosion in cultivated and poorly managed abandoned sloping vineyards in the Axarquía Region (Málaga, Spain). Air, Soil and Water Research 12.

Rodrigo‐Comino, J., Giménez‐Morera, A., Panagos, P., Pourghasemi, H. R., Pulido, M., Cerdà, A., 2020. The potential of straw mulch as a nature-based solution for soil erosion in olive plantation treated with glyphosate: A biophysical and socioeconomic assessment. Land Degradation & Development 31 (15), 1877-1889.

Rodrigo-Comino, J., López-Vicente, M., Kumar, V., Rodríguez-Seijo, A., Valkó, O., Rojas, C., Pourghasemi, H. R., Bakr, N., Vaudour, E., Brevik, E.C., Radziemska, M., Pulido, M., Di Prima, S., Dondini, M., de Vries, W, Santos, E.S., Mendonça-Santos, M., Yu, Y., Panagos, P., 2020. Soil science challenges in a new era: A transdisciplinary overview of relevant topics. Air, Soil and Water Research 13.

Rodrigo-Comino, J., Terol, E., Mora, G., Giménez-Morera, A., Cerdà, A., 2020. Vicia Sativa Roth. can reduce soil and water losses in recently planted vineyards (Vitis Vinifera L.). Earth Systems and Environment 4, 827-842.

Rubio, J. L., Bochet, E., 1998. Desertification indicators as diagnosis criteria for desertification risk assessment in Europe. Journal of Arid Environments 39, 113-120.

Ruprecht, J. K., Schofield, N. J., 1989. Analysis of streamflow generation following deforestation in Southwest Western Australia. Journal of Hydrology 105: 1-17.

Sachs, J. D., Mellinger, A. D., Gallup, J. L., 2001. The Geography of poverty and wealth. Scientific American 284 (3), 70-75.

Salvati, L., Zitti, M., 2009. Assessing the impact of ecological and economic factors on land degradation vulnerability through multiway analysis. Ecological Indicators 9 (2): 357-363.

Salvati, L, Zitti, M., Ceccarelli, T., 2008. Integrating economic and environmental indicators in the assessment of desertification risk: A case study. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 6, 129-138.

Salvati, L., Zitti, Z., Perini, L., 2016. Fifty years on: long‐term patterns of land sensitivity to desertification in Italy. Land Degradation & Development 27, 97-107.

Salvati, L., Ciommi, M.T., Serra, P., Chelli, M. 2019. Exploring the spatial structure of housing prices under economic expansion and stagnation: The role of socio-demographic factors in metropolitan Rome, Italy. Land Use Policy 81, 143-152.

Schnabel, S., 1994. Using botanical evidence for the determination of erosion rates in semi-arid tropical areas. Advances in GeoEcology 27, 31-45.

Serra, P., Vera, A., Tulla, A.F., Salvati, L., 2014. Beyond urban-rural dichotomy: Exploring socioeconomic and land-use processes of change in Spain (1991-2011). Applied Geography 55, 71-81.

Singer, M. J., Le Bissonais, Y., 1998. Importance of surface sealing in the erosion of some soils from a Mediterranean climate. Geomorphology 28, 79-85.

Smith, P., Cotrufo, M. F., Rumpel, C., Paustian, K., Kuikman, P. J., Elliott, J. A., McDowell, R., Griffiths, R. I., Asakawa, S., Bustamante, M., House, J.I., Sobocká, J., Harper, R., Pan, G., West, P. C., Gerber, J. S., Clark, J. M., Adhya, T., Scholes, R. J., Scholes, M.J., 2015. Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils. SOIL 1, 665-685.

Smith, P., Calvin, K., Nkem, J., Campbell, D., Cherubini, F., Grassi, G., Korotkov, V., Le Hoang, A., Lwasa, S., McElwee, P., Nkonya, E., Saigusa, N., Soussana, J. F., Taboada, M.A., Manning, F.C., Nampanzira, D., Arias-Navarro, C., Vizzarri, M., House, J., Roe, S., Cowie, A., Rounsevell, M., Almut, A., 2020. Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation and combat land degradation and desertification? Global Change Biology 26 (3), 1532-1575.

Squire, G. R., Hawes, C., Valentine, T.A., Young, M.W., 2015. Degradation rate of soil function varies with trajectory of agricultural intensification. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 202, 160-167.

Sterk, G. 2003. Causes, consequences and control of wind erosion in Sahelian Africa: A review. Land Degradation & Development 14 (1), 95-108.

Stern, D. I., Common, M.S., Barbier, E. B., 1996. Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental kuznets curve and sustainable development. World Development 24, 1151-1160.

Suhrke, A., 1997. Environmental degradation, migration, and the potential for violent conflict. In Gleditsch, N. P. (Edr.). Conflict and the Environment. NATO ASI Series. 255-272 pp., Springer Netherlands.

Tanrivermis, H. 2003. Agricultural land use change and sustainable use of land resources in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Journal of Arid Environments 54, 553-564.

Tarolli, P. 2016. Humans and the Earth’s surface. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41 (15), 2301-2304.

Thornes, J. B. 1985. The ecology of Erosion. Geography 70 (3), 222-235.

Turner, B. L. 1994. Local Faces, Global Flows: The Role of Land Use and Land Cover in Global Environmental Change. Land Degradation & Development 5 (2), 71-78.

Vagen, T. G., Winowiecki, L.A., Tondoh, J. E., Desta, L. T., Gumbricht, T., 2016. Mapping of soil properties and land degradation risk in Africa using MODIS reflectance. Geoderma 263, 216-225.

Venezian Scarascia, M. E., Di Battista, F., Salvati, L., 2006. Water resources in Italy: Availability and agricultural uses. Irrigation and Drainage 55, 115-127.

Woods, M. 2009. Rural geography: Blurring boundaries and making connections. Progress in Human Geography 33 (6), 849-858.

Xie, H., Zhang, Y., Wu, Z., Lv., T., 2020. A bibliometric analysis on land degradation: Current status, development, and future directions. Land 9 (1), 28.

Zambon, I., Benedetti, A., Ferrara, C., Salvati, L., 2018. Soil matters? A multivariate analysis of socioeconomic constraints to urban expansion in Mediterranean Europe. Ecological Economics 146, 173-183.

Zitti, M., Ferrara, C., Perini, L., Carlucci, M., Salvati, L., 2015. Long-term urban growth and land use efficiency in Southern Europe: Implications for sustainable land management. Sustainability 7 (3), 3359-3385.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jesús Rodrigo Comino, Rosanna Salvia, Gianluca Egidi, Luca Salvati, Antonio Giménez-Morera, Giovanni Quaranta

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540