Four-year soil erosion rates in a running-mountain trail in eastern Iberian Peninsula

D. Salesa, A. Cerdà


During the last decades, the use of mountain trails for running is more and more popular. New trails are opened to allow the runners to practice and compete. This form of human impact on the landscape is new as the new trails do not follow the conservation strategies in design and maintenance as traditional mountain trails constructed by farmers, shepherds and muleteers do. This impact of sport events in nature is not measured and we know little about this impact on vegetation, fauna and soils. We surveyed in September 2018 a trail that was opened in September 2014 and was used for four official mountain trail races, and for training by local runners. Our interviews with organizers and users show that 1054 runners passed during the competition days (4 races in 4 years) and over the 4-year period the trail was used approximately 43,800 times by a runner. We measured the current topography and calculated the soil lost. The results show extremely high erosion rates in the sloping terrain, with the highest rates in the north-facing slope, reaching up to 180.29 Mg ha-1 y-1, while in the flat section of the trail soil erosion rates are 107.56 Mg ha-1 y-1 and in the south-facing slope trail 128.93 Mg ha-1 y-1. Our study demonstrates that (i) soil erosion rates on trails can be easily estimated by measuring the deepest trail position enabling fast and cheap surveys; and (ii) that there is a need to establish conservation strategies on new trails to avoid non-sustainable soil losses in the Mediterranean mountains due to the sport activities such as the mountain trail races.


Soil erosion; Mountain trails; Sustainability; Mountain sports; Running races

Full Text:



Agassi, M., Ben-Hur, M. 1991. Effect of slope length, aspect and phosphogypsum on runoff and erosion from steep slopes. Soil Research 29 (2), 197-207.

Agassi, M., Morin, J., Shainberg, I. 1990. Slope, aspect, and phosphogypsum effects on runoff and erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54 (4), 1102-1106.

Antoneli, V., Rebinski, E.A., Bednarz, J.A., Rodrigo-Comino, J., Keesstra, S.D., Cerdà, A., Pulido Fernández, M. 2018. Soil Erosion Induced by the Introduction of New Pasture Species in a Faxinal Farm of Southern Brazil. Geosciences 8(5), 166. geosciences8050166.

Barros, A., Gonnet, J., Pickering, C. 2013. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Environmental Management 127, 50-60.

Beeco, J.A., Hallo, J.C., Giumetti, G.W. 2013. The importance of spatial nested data in understanding the relationship between visitor use and landscape impacts. Applied Geography 45, 147-157.

Begum, F., Bajracharya, R.M., Sharma, S., Sitaula, B.K. 2010. Influence of slope aspect on soil physico-chemical and biological properties in the mid hills of central Nepal. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 17 (5), 438-443.

Bodoque, J.M., Ballesteros-Cánovas, J.A., Rubiales, J.M., Perucha, M.Á., Nadal-Romero, E., Stoffel, M. 2017. Quantifying Soil Erosion from Hiking Trail in a Protected Natural Area in the Spanish Pyrenees. Land Degradation & Development 28, 2255-2267. https://doi. org/10.1002/ldr.2755.

Bodoque, J.M., Díez-Herrero, A., Martín-Duque, J.F., Rubiales, J.M., Godfrey, A., Pedraza, J., Carrasco, R.M., Sanz, M.A. 2005. Sheet erosion rates determined by using dendrogeomorphological analysis of exposed tree roots: two examples from Central Spain. Catena 64 (1), 81-102.

Bojie, F., Xilin, W., Gulinck, H. 1995. Soil erosion types in the Loess Hill and Gully area of China. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering 7, 266-272.

Borgers, J., Thibaut, E., Vandermeerschen, H., Vanreusel, B., Vos, S., Scheerder, J. 2015. Sports participation styles revisited: A time-trend study in Belgium from the 1970s to the 2000s. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 50 (1), 45-63. https://doi. org/10.1177/1012690212470823.

Bowker, J.M., Bergstrom, J.C., Gill, J. 2007. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail. Tourism Economics 13 (2), 241-260.

Bratton, S.P., Hickler, M.G., Graves, J.H. 1979. Trail erosion patterns in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Environmental Management 3 (5), 431-445.

Brevik, E.C., Pereg, L., Steffan, J.J., Burgess, L.C. 2018. Soil ecosystem services and human health. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health 5, 87-92.

Buol, S.W., Southard, R.J., Graham, R.C., McDaniel, P.A. 2011. Soil genesis and classification. John Wiley & Sons.

Burden, R.F., Randerson, P.F. 1972. Quantitative studies of the effects of human trampling on vegetation as an aid to the management of semi-natural areas. Journal of Applied Ecology 9 (2), 439-457.

Burr, J.F., Drury, C.T., Phillips, A.A., Ivey, A., Ku, J., Warburton, D.E. 2014. Long-term ultra-marathon running and arterial compliance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17 (3), 322-325.

Butzer, K.W. 2005. Environmental history in the Mediterranean world: cross-disciplinary investigation of cause-and-effect for degradation and soil erosion. Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (12), 1773-1800.

Cao, L., Zhang, K., Liang, Y. 2014. Factors affecting rill erosion of unpaved loess roads in China. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39 (13), 1812-1821.

Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78 (2), 321-330.

Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., Calvo, A. 1995. Fire and aspect induced differences on the erodibility and hydrology of soils at La Costera, Valencia, southeast Spain. Catena 24 (4), 289-304. https://

Cerdà, A., Rodrigo-Comino, J., Giménez-Morera, A., Keesstra, S. D. 2018. Hydrological and erosional impact and farmer’s perception on catch crops and weeds in citrus organic farming in Canyoles river watershed, Eastern Spain. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 258, 49-58.

Chavez, D.J., Winter, P.L., Baas, J.M. 1993. Recreational mountain biking: A management perspective. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 11 (3), 29-36.

Comita, L.S., Goldsmith, G.R. 2008. Impact of research trails on seedling dynamics in a tropical forest. Biotropica 40(2), 251-254.

Creagh, U., Reilly, T., Lees, A. 1998. Kinematics of running on ‘off-road’ terrain. Ergonomics 41 (7), 1029-1033.

Ćwiąkała, P., Kocierz, R., Puniach, E., Nędzka, M., Mamczarz, K., Niewiem, W., Wiącek, P. 2017. Assessment of the Possibility of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for the Documentation of Hiking Trails in Alpine Areas. Sensors 18 (1), 81.

Dale, D., Weaver, T. 1974. Trampling effects on vegetation of the trail corridors of north Rocky Mountain forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 11 (2), 767-772. https://doi. org/10.2307/2402226.

Deluca, T.H., Patterson, L.V., Freimund, W.A., Cole, D.N. 1998. Influence of llamas, horses, and hikers on soil erosion from established recreation trails in western Montana, USA. Environmental Management 22 (2), 255-262.

Di Prima, S., Lassabatere, L., Rodrigo-Comino, J., Marrosu, R., Pulido, M., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Pirastru, M. 2018. Comparing transient and steady-state analysis of single-ring infiltrometer data for an abandoned field affected by fire in Eastern Spain. Water 10 (4), 514. https://doi. org/10.3390/w10040514.

Duglio, S., Beltramo, R. 2017. Estimating the economic impacts of a small-scale sport tourism event: The case of the Italo-Swiss mountain trail CollonTrek. Sustainability 9 (3), 343.

Esque, T.C., Inman, R., Nussear, K.E., Webb, R.H., Girard, M.M., DeGayner, J. 2016. Comparison of Methods to Monitor the Distribution and Impacts of Unauthorized Travel Routes in a Border Park. Natural Areas Journal 36 (3), 248-258.

Farias-Torbidoni, E.I., Urbaneja, J.S., Ferrer, R., Dorado, V. 2018. Carreras de trail running y marchas por montaña en España. Número, evolución e incidencia sobre la Red Natura 2000. Pirineos 173, 9-18.

Farrell, T.A., Marion, J.L. 2001. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Leisure/Loisir 26 (1-2), 31-59.

Farrell, T.A., Marion, J.L. 2001. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at eight protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize. Environmental Conservation 28 (3), 215-225.

Feng, T., Wei, W., Chen, L., Rodrigo-Comino, J., Die, C., Feng, X., Yu, Y. 2018. Assessment of the impact of different vegetation patterns on soil erosion processes on semiarid loess slopes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 43 (9), 1860-1870.

Fish, E.B., Brothers, G.L., Lewis, R.B. 1981. Erosional impacts of trails in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. Landscape Planning 8 (4), 387-398.

Fix, P., Loomis, J. 1997. The economic benefits of mountain biking at one of its meccas: An application of the travel cost method to mountain biking in Moab, Utah. Journal of Leisure Research 29 (3), 342-352.

Fox, D., Berolo, W., Carrega, P., Darboux, F. 2006. Mapping erosion risk and selecting sites for simple erosion control measures after a forest fire in Mediterranean France. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31 (5), 606-621.

García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81 (1), 1-11.

García-Ruiz, J.M., Lana-Renault, N. 2011. Hydrological and erosive consequences of farmland abandonment in Europe, with special reference to the Mediterranean region–a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 140 (3-4), 317-338. agee.2011.01.003.

García-Ruiz, J.M., Beguería, S., Lana-Renault, N., Nadal-Romero, E., Cerdà, A. 2017. Ongoing and emerging questions in water erosion studies. Land Degradation & Development 28 (1), 5-21.

Goeft, U., Alder, J. 2001. Sustainable mountain biking: a case study from the southwest of Western Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9 (3), 193-211. https://doi. org/10.1080/09669580108667398.

González-Hidalgo, J.C., Peña-Monné, J.L., de Luis, M. 2007. A review of daily soil erosion in Western Mediterranean areas. Catena 71 (2), 193-199.

Hawkins, J., Weintraub, M.N. 2011. The Effect of Trails on Soil in the Oak Openings of Northwest Ohio. Natural Areas Journal 31 (4), 391-399.

Helgath, S.F. 1975. Trail deterioration in the Selway-Bitterroot wilderness (Research Note INT 193). USDA Forest Service. 15 pp.

Hoffman, M.D., Ong, J.C., Wang, G. 2010. Historical analysis of participation in 161 km ultramarathons in North America. The International Journal of the History of Sport 27 (11), 1877-1891.

Hughes, P.J. 1972. Slope aspect and tunnel erosion in the loess of Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand) 11 (2), 94-98.

Inbar, M., Tamir, M.I., Wittenberg, L. 1998. Runoff and erosion processes after a forest fire in Mount Carmel, a Mediterranean area. Geomorphology 24 (1), 17-33. S0169-555X(97)00098-6.

Jackson, E.L. 1986. Outdoor recreation participation and attitudes to the environment. Leisure Studies 5 (1), 1-23.

Jackson, E.L. 1987. Outdoor recreation participation and views on resource development and preservation. Leisure Sciences 9 (4), 235-250.

Jewell, M.C., Hammitt, W.E. 2000. Assessing soil erosion on trails: a comparison of techniques. In: D.N. Cole, F.S. McCool, T.W. Borrie, J. O’Loughlin (Comps.), Wilderness Science in a time of change Conference- Volume 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management. USDA Forest Service. pp. 133-140.

Johnson, C.W., Smith, J.P. 1983. Soil loss caused by off-road vehicle use on steep slopes. Transactions of the ASAE 26 (2), 402-405.

Keesstra, S.D., Temme, A.J.A.M., Schoorl, J.M., Visser, S.M. 2014. Evaluating the hydrological component of the new catchment-scale sediment delivery model LAPSUS-D. Geomorphology 212, 97-107.

Keesstra, S., Nunes, J.P., Saco, P., Parsons, T., Poeppl, R., Masselink, R., Cerdà, A. 2018. The way forward: Can connectivity be useful to design better measuring and modelling schemes for water and sediment dynamics? Science of the Total Environment 644, 1557-1572. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.342.

Keesstra, S., Mol, G., de Leeuw, J., Okx, J., de Cleen, M., Visser, S. 2018. Soil-Related Sustainable Development Goals: Four Concepts to Make Land Degradation Neutrality and Restoration Work. Land 7 (4), 133.

Kidd, K.R., Aust, W.M., Copenheaver, C.A. 2014. Recreational stream crossing effects on sediment delivery and macroinvertebrates in Southwestern Virginia, USA. Environmental management 54 (3), 505-516.

Kirchhoff, M., Rodrigo-Comino, J., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2017. Soil erosion in sloping vineyards under conventional and organic land use managements (Saar-Mosel valley, Germany). Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 43 (1), 119-140.

Knechtle, B., Rosemann, T., Zingg, M.A., Rüst, C.A. 2015. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the ‘Jungfrau Marathon’: a Swiss phenomenon? Springerplus 4 (1), 523.

Knoth, C., Knechtle, B., Rüst, C.A., Rosemann, T., Lepers, R. 2012. Participation and performance trends in multistage ultramarathons—the ‘Marathon des Sables’ 2003-2012. Extreme Physiology & Medicine 1 (1), 13.

Kutiel, P. 1992. Slope aspect effect on soil and vegetation in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Israel Journal of Botany 41 (4-6), 243-250.

Kutiel, P., Lavee, H. 1999. Effect of slope aspect on soil and vegetation properties along an aridity transect. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47 (3), 169-178.

Lana-Renault, N., López-Vicente, M., Nadal-Romero, E., Ojanguren, R., Llorente, J.A., Errea, P., Pascual, N. 2018. Catchment based hydrology under post farmland abandonment scenarios. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 44 (2), 503-534. http://

Lasanta-Martínez, T., Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Cuadrat-Prats, J.M. 2005. Mountain Mediterranean landscape evolution caused by the abandonment of traditional primary activities: a study of the Spanish Central Pyrenees. Applied Geography 25 (1), 47-65. apgeog.2004.11.001.

Lasanta, T., Nadal-Romero, E., García-Ruiz, J.M. 2019. Clearing shrubland as a strategy to encourage extensive livestock farming in the Mediterranean mountains. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 45.

Leung, Y.F., Marion, J.L. 2000. Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: a state-of-knowledge review. In: N.D Cole, F.S. McCool, T.W. Borrie, J. O’Loughlin (Comps.), Wilderness Science in a time of change Conference- Volume 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management. USDA Forest Service, pp. 23-48.

Liddle, M.J. 1975. A selective review of the ecological effects of human trampling on natural ecosystems. Biological Conservation 7 (1), 17-36.

López-Vicente, M., Navas, A. 2009. Predicting soil erosion with RUSLE in Mediterranean agricultural systems at catchment scale. Soil Science 174 (5), 272-282. SS.0b013e3181a4bf50.

López-Vicente, M., Poesen, J., Navas, A., Gaspar, L. 2013. Predicting runoff and sediment connectivity and soil erosion by water for different land use scenarios in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. Catena 102, 62-73.

Måren, I.E., Karki, S., Prajapati, C., Yadav, R.K., Shrestha, B.B. 2015. Facing north or south: Does slope aspect impact forest stand characteristics and soil properties in a semiarid trans-Himalayan valley? Journal of Arid Environments 121, 112-123. jaridenv.2015.06.004.

Marion, J.L., Leung, Y.F. 2004. Environmentally sustainable trail management. In: R. Buckley (Ed.). Environmental impact of tourism. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 229-244.

Marion, J.L., Olive, N. 2006. Assessing and understanding trail degradation: results from Big South Fork National River and recreational area. US Geological Survey. 84 pp.

Marques, M.A., Mora, E. 1992. The influence of aspect on runoff and soil loss in a Mediterranean burnt forest (Spain). Catena 19 (3-4), 333-344.

Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A., Ramos, M.C., Ribes-Dasi, M. 2002. Soil erosion caused by extreme rainfall events: mapping and quantification in agricultural plots from very detailed digital elevation models. Geoderma 105 (1-2), 125-140.

Masselink, R., Temme, A J.A.M., Giménez, R., Casalí, J., Keesstra, S.D. 2017a. Assessing hillslope-channel connectivity in an agricultural catchment using rare-earth oxide tracers and random forests models. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica 43 (1), 17-39.

Masselink, R.J., Heckmann, T., Temme, A.J., Anders, N.S., Gooren, H.P., Keesstra, S.D. 2017b. A network theory approach for a better understanding of overland flow connectivity. Hydrological Processes 31 (1), 207-220.

Monz, C.A., Cole, D.N., Leung, Y.F., Marion, J. L. 2010. Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience. Environmental Management 45 (3), 551-562.

Morgan, R.P.C., Smith, A.J. 1980. Simulation of soil erosion induced by human trampling. Journal of Environmental Management 10, 155-165.

Munns, E.N. 1920. Chaparral cover, run-off, and erosion. Journal of Forestry 18 (8), 806-814.

Nepal, S K. 2003. Trail impacts in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National park, Nepal: a logistic regression analysis. Environmental Management, 32 (3), 312-321. . s00267-003-0049-7.

Nepal, S.K., Nepal, S.A. 2004. Visitor impacts on trails in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. Ambio 33 (6), 334-340.

Nepal, S.K., Way, P. 2007. Characterizing and comparing backcountry trail conditions in Mount Robson Provincial Park, Canada. Ambio 36 (5), 394-400.

Newsome, D., Davies, C. 2009. A case study in estimating the area of informal trail development and associated impacts caused by mountain bike activity in John Forest National Park, Western Australia. Journal of Ecotourism, 8 (3), 237-253. https://doi. org/10.1080/14724040802538308.

Olive, N.D., Marion, J.L. 2009. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (3), 1483-1493.

Olivero, A.M., Hix, D.M. 1998. Influence of aspect and stand age on ground flora of southeastern Ohio forest ecosystems. Plant Ecology 139 (2), 177-187. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1009758501201.

Pausas, J.G., Carbó, E., Caturla, R.N., Gil, J.M., Vallejo, R. 1999. Post-fire regeneration patterns in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Acta Oecologica 20 (5), 499-508. S1146-609X(00)86617-5.

Pelfini, M., Santilli, M. 2006. Dendrogeomorphological analyses on exposed roots along two mountain hiking trails in the Central Italian Alps. Geografiska Annaler: Series A. Physical Geography 88 (3), 223-236.

Phillips, J.D., Turkington, A.V., Marion, D.A. 2008. Weathering and vegetation effects in early stages of soil formation. Catena 72 (1), 21-28.

Ramos-Scharrón, C.E., Reale-Munroe, K., Atkinson, S.C. 2014. Quantification and modeling of foot trail surface erosion in a dry sub-tropical setting. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39 (13), 1764-1777.

Randall, M., Newsome, D. 2008. Assessment, evaluation and a comparison of planned and unplanned walk trails in coastal south-western Australia. Conservation Science Western Australia 7 (1), 19-34.

Rochat, N., Hauw, D., Philippe, R.A., von Roten, F.C., Seifert, L. 2017. Comparison of vitality states of finishers and withdrawers in trail running: An enactive and phenomenological perspective. PloS One 12 (3), e0173667.

Rodrigo-Comino, J., Keesstra, S., Cerdà, A. 2018. Soil Erosion as an environmental concern in vineyards. The case study of Celler del Roure, Eastern Spain, by means of rainfall simulation experiments. Beverages 4 (2), 31.

Rodrigo-Comino, J., Taguas, E., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B. 2018. Quantification of soil and water losses in an extensive olive orchard catchment in Southern Spain. Journal of Hydrology 556, 749-758.

Sack, D., Da Luz, S. 2003. Sediment flux and compaction trends on off-road vehicle (ORV) and other trails in an Appalachian forest setting. Physical Geography 24 (6), 536-554. https://doi. org/10.2747/0272-3646.24.6.536.

Scheer, B.V., Murray, A. 2011. Al Andalus Ultra Trail: an observation of medical interventions during a 219-km, 5-day ultramarathon stage race. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 21 (5), 444-446.

Serra, P., Pons, X., Saurí, D. 2008. Land-cover and land-use change in a Mediterranean landscape: a spatial analysis of driving forces integrating biophysical and human factors. Applied Geography 28 (3), 189-209.

Shakesby, R.A. 2011. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: review and future research directions. Earth-Science Reviews 105 (3-4), 71-100. earscirev.2011.01.001.

Sidari, M., Ronzello, G., Vecchio, G., Muscolo, A. 2008. Influence of slope aspects on soil chemical and biochemical properties in a Pinus laricio forest ecosystem of Aspromonte (Southern Italy). European Journal of Soil Biology 44 (4), 364-372. ejsobi.2008.05.001.

Sidle, R C., Brown, R.W., Williams, B.D. 1993. Erosion processes on arid minespoil slopes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57 (5), 1341-1347.

Smith, J.R. 1914. Soil erosion and its remedy by terracing and tree planting. Science 39 (1015), 858-862. Smith, R.M., Stamey, W.L. 1965. Determining the range of tolerable erosion. Soil Science 100 (6), 414-424.

Sterl, P., Brandenburg, C., Arnberger, A. 2008. Visitors’ awareness and assessment of recreational disturbance of wildlife in the Donau-Auen National Park. Journal for Nature Conservation, 16 (3), 135-145.

Sternberg, M., Shoshany, M. 2001. Influence of slope aspect on Mediterranean woody formations: comparison of a semiarid and an arid site in Israel. Ecological Research 16 (2), 335-345.

Stull, R., Shipley, S., Hovanitz, E., Thompson, S., Hovanitz, K. 1979. Effects of off-road vehicles in Ballinger Canyon, California. Geology 7 (1), 19-21.<19:EOOVIB>2.0.CO;2.

Symmonds, M.C., Hammitt, W.E., Quisenberry, V.L. 2000. Managing recreational trail environments for mountain bike user preferences. Environmental Management 25 (5), 549-564.

Tarolli, P., Calligaro, S., Cazorzi, F., Fontana, G.D. 2013. Recognition of surface flow processes influenced by roads and trails in mountain areas using high-resolution topography. European Journal of Remote Sensing 46 (1), 176-197.

Thurston, E., Reader, R.J. 2001. Impacts of experimentally applied mountain biking and hiking on vegetation and soil of a deciduous forest. Environmental management 27 (3), 397-409.

Tomczyk, A.M., White, P.C., Ewertowski, M.W. 2016. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits. Journal of Environmental Management 166, 156-167.

Turnbull, L., Hütt, M.T., Ioannides, A.A., Kininmonth, S., Poeppl, R., Tockner, K., Bracken, L., Keesstra, S., Liu, L., Masselink, R., Parsons, A.J. 2018. Connectivity and complex systems: learning from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Applied Network Science 3 (1), 11.

van Breda Weaver, A. 1991. The distribution of soil erosion as a function of slope aspect and parent material in Ciskei, Southern Africa. GeoJournal 23 (1), 29-34. BF00204406.

Verheijen, F.G.A., Jones, R.J.A., Rickson, R.J., Smith, C.J. 2009. Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe. Earth-Science Reviews 94, 23-38. earscirev.2009.02.003.

Wallin, T.R., Harden, C.P. 1996. Estimating trail-related soil erosion in the humid tropics: Jatun Sacha, Ecuador, and La Selva, Costa Rica. Ambio 25 (8), 517-522.

Webb, R.H., Ragland, H.C., Godwin, W.H., Jenkins, O. 1978. Environmental effects of soil property changes with off-road vehicle use. Environmental Management 2 (3), 219-233.

White, R.G., Schreyer, R. 1981. Nontraditional uses of the National Parks. Leisure Sciences 4 (3), 325-341.

Willard, B.E., Marr, J.W. 1971. Recovery of alpine tundra under protection after damage by human activities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Biological Conservation 3 (3), 181-190.

Wimpey, J.F., Marion, J.L. 2010. The influence of use, environmental and managerial factors on the width of recreational trails. Journal of Environmental Management 91 (10), 2028-2037.

Wolf, I.D., Wohlfart, T. 2014. Walking, hiking and running in parks: A multidisciplinary assessment of health and well-being benefits. Landscape and Urban Planning 130, 89-103.


Copyright (c) 2018 Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 0211-6820

EISSN 1697-9540