Una aproximación al aprendizaje autorregulado en alumnos de Educación Secundaria

Fermín Torrano, María Soria

Resumen


En las últimas décadas el estudio de las interrelaciones entre cognición y motivación (recogido bajo el constructo de aprendizaje autorregulado o Self-Regulated Learning) se ha convertido en tema central de la Psicología de la Educación y en una de las principales direcciones por donde avanza la disciplina. Dentro de este marco de referencia, el objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar las interrelaciones entre la motivación (metas académicas, creencias de autoeficacia y estrategias self-handicapping), las estrategias de aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico en alumnos de Educación Secundaria. La muestra estuvo compuesta por N= 374 alumnos de 2º curso de la ESO (edad media 13-14 años). Los resultados ponen de relieve que estos alumnos manifiestan una alta motivación intrínseca y una elevada autoconfianza en sus capacidades académicas, además de emplear un gran número de estrategias de aprendizaje, lo cual correlaciona positivamente con el rendimiento académico. Sin embargo, las bajas puntuaciones en algunas de las escalas de estrategias cognitivas, plantea la duda de hasta qué punto se promueve el aprendizaje significativo y autorregulado en este nivel educativo. Finalmente, se proponen una serie de recomendaciones y principios para la promoción del aprendizaje autorregulado en el aula.


Palabras clave


Psicología de la Educación; aprendizaje autorregulado; motivación académica; estrategias de aprendizaje; rendimiento académico

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.84.3.261.

Anderman, E. M., Urdan, T. y Roeser, R. (2003). The Patterns of Adaptive learning Survey: History, development and psychometric properties. Comunicación presentada en Indicators of Positive Development Conference, Washington.

Anderman E. M., y Wolters, C. (2006). Goals, values, and affects: influences on student motivation. En P. Alexander y P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology, New York: Simon y Schuster/Macmillan. doi:10.4324/9780203874790. ch17.

Azevedo, R., y Hadwin, A. F. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition- implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 33, 367-379.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Trad. cast: Teoría del aprendizaje social. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1982).

Bandura, A. (1978). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33, 344-358.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. (Trad. cast: Pensamiento y acción. Fundamentos sociales. Barcelona: Martínez Roca, 1987).

Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition. Neuropsychologia, 65, 313-319.

Bong, M., y Skaalvik, E. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15, 1-40.

Butler, D. L., Schnellert, L., y Cartier, S. C. (2013). Layers of self- and co-regulation: Teachers’ co-regulating learning and practice to foster students’ self-regulated learning through reading. Education Research International. doi: 10.1155/2013/845694.

Cleary, T. J.. y Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation empowerment program: A School-based program to enhance self-regulated and self-motivated cycles of student learning. Psychology in the Schools, 41, 537-550.

Cooper, C. A., y Corpus, J. H. (2009). Learners’ developing knowledge of strategies for regulation motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 525-536.

De la Fuente, J. (2004). Perspectivas recientes en el estudio de la motivación: la teoría de la orientación de meta. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 2, 35-62.

Dignath, C.. y Büttner, G. (2008). Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 231-264. doi: 10.1007/s11409-008- 9029-x

Ellis, A. K., Denton, D. W., y Bond, J. B. (2014). Analysis of research on metacognitive teaching strategies. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4015-4024.

Fox, D. (1981). El proceso de investigación en educación. Pamplona: EUNSA.

Gagne, M., y Decir, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362.

González-Torres, M. C. y Torrano, F. (2013). Perfiles de motivación y rendimiento académico en matemáticas en estudiantes de educación secundaria: Utilidad del Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). En V. Mellado, L. J. Blanco, A. B. Borrachero y J. A. Cárdenas (Eds.), Las Emociones en la Enseñanza y el Aprendizaje de las Ciencias Experimentales y las Matemáticas (pp. 177-215). Badajoz: DEPROFE.

Harackiewicz, J. M., Durik, A. M., Barron, K. E., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., y Tauer, J. (2008). The role of achievement goals in the development of interest: Reciprocal relations between achievement goals, interest, and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 105-122. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.105.

Karabenick, S. A., y Zusho, A. (2015). Examining approaches to research on self-regulated Learning: conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 10, 151-163. doi: 10.1007/s11409-015-9137-3.

Kelley, W. M., Wagner, D. D., y Heatherton, T. F. (2015). In search of a human self-regulation system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 389-411. doi: 10.1146/ annurev-neuro-071013-014243.

Kistner, S., Rakoczy, K., Otto, B., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Buttner, G., y Klieme, E. (2010). Promotion of self-regulated learning in classrooms: Investigating frequency, quality, and consequences for student performance. Metacognition and Learning, 5, 157-171. doi: 10.1007/s11409-010-9055-3.

Lehmann, T., Hähnlein, I., y Ifenthaler, D. (2014). Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational perspectives on preflection in self-regulated online learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 313-323.

Linnenbrink, E. A. (2005). The dilemma of performance-approach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote students’ motivation and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 197-213.

Linnenbrink, E. A., y Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple pathways to learning and achievement: The role of goal orientation in fostering adaptative motivation, affect, and cognition. En C. Sansone y J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (pp. 195-226). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lodewyk, K., Winne, P. H., y Jamieson-Noel, D. L. (2009). Implications of task structure on self-regulated learning and achievement. Educational Psychology, 29, 1-25.

Maehr, M. L., y Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal theory: The past, present, and future. En K. R. Wentzel y A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation in school (pp. 77-104). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., y Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structures, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 487-503. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070258.

Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., Gheen, M., Kaplan, A., Kumar, R., Middleton, M. J., Nelson, J., Roeser, R., y Urdan, T. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS), Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. Recuperado de http://www.umich.edu/~pals/ pals/PALS%202000_V13Word97.pdf.

Midgley, C. (Ed.) (2002). Goals, goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Muis, K. R., y Winne, P. H. (2012). Assessing the psychometric properties of the achievement goals questionnaire Across Task Contexts. Canadian Journal of Education, 35, 232-248.

Norusis, M. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics 19: Guide to data analysis. Chicago, IL: SPSS.

Núñez, J. C., Cerezo, R., Bernardo, A., Rosario, R., Valle, A., Fernández, E., y Suárez, N. (2011). Implementation of training programs in self-regulated learning strategies in Moodle format: Results of a experience in higher education. Psicothema, 23, 274-281.

Pajares, F., y Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-Beliefs and School Success: Self-Efficacy, Self- Concept, and School Achievement. En R. Riding y S. G. Rayner (Eds.), International Perspectives on Individual Differences: Self-Perception (Vol. 2, pp. 239-265). Westport, CT: Ablex.

Pajares, F., y Schunk, D. H. (2006). The self and academic motivation. Theory and research after the cognitive revolution. En J. M. Royer (Ed.), The Cognitive Revolution in Educational Psychology (pp. 165-185). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Panadero, E., y Alonso-Tapia, J. (2014). ¿Cómo autorregulan nuestros alumnos? Revisión del modelo cíclico de Zimmerman sobre autorregulación del aprendizaje. Annales de Psicología, 30, 450-462.

Perry, N. E., y Winne, P. H. (2006). Learning from learning kits: gStudy traces of students’ self-regulated engagements using software. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 211-228.

Pintrich, P. R. (2003). Motivation and classroom learning. En W. M. Reynolds y G. E. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology: Educational psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 103- 122). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Pintrich, P. R., y Linnenbrink, E. A. (2000, April). The role of motivation in intentional learning. Comunicación presentada en el Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.

Pintrich, P. R., Roeser, R. W., y DeGroot, E. V. (1994). Classroom and individual differences in early adolescents’ motivation and self-regulated learning. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 139-161.

Pintrich, P. R., Wolters, C., y Baxter, G. P. (2000). Assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning. En G. Schraw y J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition (pp. 43-97). Lincoln: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of Nebraska Press.

Puzziferro, M. (2008). Online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of final grade and satisfaction in college-level online courses. The American Journal of Distance Education, 22, 72-89.

Roces, C., Tourón, J., y González-Torres, M. C. (1995). Validación preliminar del CEAM II. Psicológica, 16, 347-366.

Sastre-Riba, S. (2011). Funcionamiento metacognitivo en niños con altas capacidad. Revista de Neurología, 52, 11-18.

Schunk, D. H., y Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Shih, K., Chen, H. C., Chang, C. Y., y Kao, T. C. (2010). The development and implementation of scaffolding based self-regulated learning system for e/m-learning. Educational Technology & Society, 13, 80-93.

Sitzmann, T., y Ely, K. (2011). A meta-analysis of self-regulated learning in work-related training and educational attainment: What we know and where we need to go. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 421-442. doi: 10.1037/a0022777.

Stoeger, H., Fleischmann, S., y Obergriesser, S. (2015). Self-regulated learning (SRL) and the gifted learner in primary school: The theoretical basis and empirical findings on a research program dedicated to ensuring that all students learn to regulate their own learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 16, 257-267. doi: 10.1007/ s12564-015-9376-7.

Taub, M., Azevedo, R., Bouchet, F., y Khosravifar, B. (2014). Can the use of cognitive and metacognitive self-regulated learning strategies be predicted by learners’ levels of prior knowledge in hypermedia-learning environments? CHB, 39, 356-367.

Torrano, F., y González-Torres, M. C. (2004). El aprendizaje autorregulado: presente y futuro de la investigación. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 2, 1-34.

Tourón, J. (1989). Métodos de estudio en la universidad. Pamplona: EUNSA.

Tourón, J., y Santiago, R. (2015). El modelo flipped learning y el desarrollo del talento en la escuela. Revista de Educación, 368, 196-231. doi: 10.4438/1988-592X- 0034-8082-RE.

Usher, E. L., y Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical Review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78, 751-796.

Valentine, J. C., DuBois, D. L., y Cooper, H. (2004). The Relation between self-beliefs and academic achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review. Educational Psychologist, 39, 111-133.

Valle, A., Rodríguez, S., Cabanach, R. G., Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J. A., y Rosario, P. (2009). Metas académicas: perspectiva histórica y conceptual e implicaciones educativas. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 7, 1073-1106.

Veenman, M. V., Wilhelm, P., y Beishuizen, J. J. (2004). The relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills from a developmental perspective. Learning and Instruction, 14, 89-109.

Wehmeyer, M., Shogren, K., Palmer, S., Williams-Diehm, K., Little, T., y Boulton, A. (2012). The impact of the self-determined learning model of instruction on student self-determination. Exceptional Children, 78, 135-153.

Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics: Control and communication in the animal and the machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wigfield, A., y Cambria, J. (2010). Students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest: Definitions, development, and relations to achievement outcomes. Developmental Review, 30, 1-35.

Winne, P. H. (2014). Issues in researching self-regulated learning as patterns of events. Metacognition and Learning, 9, 229-237. doi: 10.1007/s11409-014-9113-3.

Winne, P. H., y Jamieson-Noel, D. (2003). Self-regulating studying by objectives for learning: Students’ reports compared to a model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 259-276.

Wolters, C. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychologist, 96, 236-250.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166-183.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2011). Motivational sources and outcomes of self-regulated learning and performance. En B. J. Zimmerman y D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 49-64). New York: Routledge.

Zimmerman, B. J., y Schunk, D. H. (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. New York: Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18172/con.2838

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 1575-023X

EISSN 1695-5714