Neurobiología del desarrollo temprano

María Luisa Poch Olivé

Resumen


Se describe el desarrollo del sistema nervioso humano desde las etapas embrionaria y fetal hasta los primeros años de vida, lo que se ha venido a llamar neuro-biología del desarrollo temprano. Se contemplan tanto los aspectos estructurales como los funcionales, los cambios que se producen y los factores genéticos y epigenéticos que influyen en dichos cambios. En la primera parte se describe la formación del sistema nervioso, la proliferación, organización y maduración neuronal añadiendo a los conocimientos "clásicos" las apor-taciones recientes de la genética y la citoarquitectura cerebral. También se revisan los conceptos actuales de plasticidad cerebral y la especialización por áreas como base bio-lógica de los aprendizajes = This paper describes the development of human nervous system from the embryonic and fetal phases to the first years of life, period called early developmental neurobiology. You can find the structural and functional aspects, the changes produced and the genetic and epigenetic factors that have influence in these changes. In the first part it is described the construction of the nervous system, the neural pro-liferation, organization and ripening, adding to the "classic" knowledge the new contri-butions of the genetics and the brain citoarchitecture. The paper also revises the recent concepts about the cerebral plasticity and the specialization in areas as the biological basis of learning

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Anderson, D. J. (1995). A molecular switch for the neuron-glia developmental decision. Neuron, 15, 1219-22.

Benes, F. M. (1994). Development of the corticolimbic system. En Dawson y Fisher (Eds.), Human Behavior and the developing brain, pp. 176-206. New York: Guilford Press.

Bergado-Rosado, J. A. y Almaguer-Melian, W. (2000). Mecanismos celulares de la neuroplasticidad. Rev Neurol, 31(11), 1074-1095.

Brezun, J. M. y Daszuta, A. (1999). Deplection in serotonin decreases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus ande the subventricular zone of adult rats. Neuroscience, 89, 999-1002.

Cowan, W. M., Fawcett, J. W. y O’Liary, D. M. (1984). Regresive events in neurogenesis. Science 225, 1258-65.

Cowan, W. M. (1987). Organización del cerebro. Investigación y Ciencia, 68-82.

Dobbing, J. y Sands, J. (1973). Quantitative growth and development of human brain.

Arch Dis Child, 48, 757-767.

Fortini, M. E. y Artavanis, S. (1993). Notch: neurogenesis is only part of the picture. Cell 75, 1245-1247.

Fosse, V. M., Heggelund, P. y Fonnum, F. (1989). Postnatal development of glutaminergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmiter phenotipes in the visual córtex , lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar and superior colliculus in cats. Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 426-435.

Gilles, F. H.; Shankle, W. y Dooling, E. C. (1983). Myelinated tracts: growth patterns . En Gilles, F. H., Leviton, A. y Dooling, E. C. (Eds.), The developing Human Brain: Growth and Epidemiological Neuropatology (pp. 117-183). Boston : John Wright.

Huttenlocher, P. R. (1990). Morphometric study of human cerebral córtex development. Neuropsychologia, 28, 517-527.

Huttenlocher, P. R. (1994). Synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neural plasticity in human cerebral córtex. En C. A. Nelson (Ed.), Trends to optimal development: the Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 27, 35-54.

Janowsky, J. S. (1986). The outcome of perinatal brin damage:the role of normal neuron loss and axon retraction Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 375-89.

Johnson , M. H. (1997). Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. Massachusets. Blackwell.

Johnston, M. V. (1988). Evidence for cholinergic projection to neocórtex from neurons in basal ganglia forebrain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 76, 5392-5396.

Killackey, H. P. (1990). Neocortical expansion: an attempt toward relating phylogeny and ontogeny Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 1-17.

Langman, A. (1969). Embriología médica. Madrid: Interamericana.

Marín Padilla, M. (1991). Embryology and pathology of the axial skeleton and neural dysrafic disorders. Can J Neurol Science, 18, 153-169.

Marín Padilla, M. (1992). Ontogenes of the pyramidal cell of the mammalian neocórtex and developmental cytoarchitecture: A unifying theory. J Comp Neurol, 321, 223-240.

Marín Padilla, M. (1998). Cajal Retzius cell and the development of the neocórtex. TINS, 21, 64-71.

Marín Padilla, M. (2000). Desarrollo, vascularización, neuroglía y citoarquitectura del cerebro humano Rev. Neurol. Clin., 1, 1-19.

Molnar, Z. y Blakemore, C. (1991). Lack of regional specificity for connections formed between thalamus and córtex in co-culture. Nature, 351, 475-477.

Ogawa, M. et al. (1995). The reeler gene -associated antigen on Cajal Retzius neurons is a crucial molecule for laminar organization of cortical neurons Neuron 14, 899-912.

O’ Leary, D.D.M. (1989). Do cortical areas emerge from a protocórtex? Trends in neuroscience, 12, 400-406.

O’Leary, D.D.M. y Stanfield, B. B. (1989). Selective elimination of axons extended by developing cortical neurons is dependen on regional locale experiments utilizing fetal cortical transplants. Journal of neuroscience, 9, 2230-2246.

Palmer, T.D.; Takahashi, J. y Gage, F. H. (1997). The adult rat hippocampus contains primordial neural stem cells. Cell Neuroscence, 8, 389-404.

Rakic, P. y Singer, W. (1988). Neurobiology of the neocórtex. Berlin: John Wyley and Son.

Del Río, J. A. et al. A role of Cajal-Retzius cells and reelin in the development of hippocampal connections. Nature 385, 70-74.

Rubinstein, J. L. R. y Beachy, P. A. (1998). Patterning of embryonic forebrain Curr Opin Neurobiol, 8: 18-26.

Sarnat, H. B. (1992). Cerebral dysgenesis. Embriology and clinical expression Oxford: University Press. New York.

Sarnat, H. B. (1998). Cómo construir un tubo neural: la genética molecular del desarrrollo neuroembriológico Rev Neurol, 28(161), 110-116.

Spemann, H. y Mangold, H. (1924). Uber induktion von Embryonalanlagen durch Implantaction Wilhem Roux Arch Entwick, 100, 599-638.

Stein, S. y Kessel, M. (1995). A homeobox gene involved in node, notocord and neural plate formation of chick embryos. Med Dev, 49: 37-48.

Volpe, J. J. (1980). Desarrollo normal y anormal del cerebro humano. Clin. Ped. NorthAm. Saunders: Philadelphia.

Yakovlev, P. I. y Lecours, A. (1967).The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation of the brain. En A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional Development of the Human Brain in Early Life. Philadelphia: Davis.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18172/con.487

Copyright (c) 2013 María Luisa Poch Olivé

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

© Universidad de La Rioja, 2013

ISSN 1575-023X

EISSN 1695-5714